PCNL in Special Situations

  • Diego M. Carrion
  • Ramón Cansino
  • Cristina Ballesteros Ruiz
  • Juan Gómez Rivas
  • Juan A. Mainez Rodríguez
  • Jose R. Pérez-Carral
  • Luis Martínez-Piñeiro


Some renal anatomical situations pose significant challenges for the treatment of lithiasis with minimally invasive techniques such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). In this chapter, we summarize the generalities, diagnosis, treatment options, technique considerations, complications, and results for the treatment of large stones with PCNL in circumstances such as calyceal diverticula, ectopic (pelvic) kidneys, transplanted kidneys, horseshoe kidneys, spinal deformities and in pregnant patients.


Calyceal diverticulum Ectopic kidney Horseshoe kidney Percutaneous nephrolithotomy Special situations Transplanted kidney Urolithiasis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diego M. Carrion
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ramón Cansino
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cristina Ballesteros Ruiz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juan Gómez Rivas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juan A. Mainez Rodríguez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jose R. Pérez-Carral
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luis Martínez-Piñeiro
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of UrologyLa Paz University HospitalMadridSpain
  2. 2.Autonomous University of MadridMadridSpain

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