This concluding chapter notes two key factors—how each stakeholder contributed to city growth and the China context. The state looms large for all three cities, but is not monolithic; it consists of different levels of government.
Distinctive circumstances pertain to each city general theories could not anticipate. Indeed, historical and cultural contexts have exerted powerful influences on how each city developed. Beyond these, “specific assets” apply to many cities and require consideration.
Policy implications can also be drawn. First, city policies must be part of national planning. Second, lack of resources is not necessarily detrimental to city growth. Third, while city administration is vital, cooperation of multiple stakeholders is necessary. Finally, adapting to changing circumstances is key to a city’s long-term survival.