Knowledge and Practice of Biomedical Waste Management and Awareness of 3 ‘R’s Concept Among Staff Nurses in the Hospital—A Cross-sectional Study

  • Bonam Soujanya KumarEmail author
  • Md. Sameer
  • S. B. Vishnu murthy
  • G. S. C. N. V. Prasad


Background: 75–85% of healthcare waste is domestic waste, and the rest 15–25% is hazardous which affects the health of staff and community at large. The studies indicate 4–5 kg/bed/day is generated. The knowledge among employees especially doctors, nurses and paramedics involved in direct patient care is essential in proper management. The high turnover of staff and students in a teaching hospital poses constant challenge in training and orienting the staff. There is a need to continuously evaluate the present level of knowledge of the statutory requirements, amendments in policies and guidelines. The theory and practice depend on the attitude and behaviour in implementation within the hospital. Aim: To study the knowledge and practice of biomedical waste management and awareness of 3 ‘R’s concept. Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire study to evaluate the knowledge and practice among staff. Nurses working in different areas of the hospital (n − 86). Results: 81.40% have knowledge about categories, 74.40% are knowing about hazards and infections spread by biomedical waste, 92% are practising segregation, 90.5% know how to handle needlestick injuries, 40% are aware of administrative aspects and amendments, and 55.80% are aware of 3 ‘R’s concept and opined that it is feasible and applies to solids and liquids. Recommendation: Strict implementation of guidelines through regular training of staff nurses is essential and constant vigilance and monitoring of the practice for effective management. The behaviour and culture need to be changed through goal setting and support from administration.


Healthcare waste Knowledge Practice Strategies 



We thank the support of the management in performing our study. We acknowledge the support of faculty and postgraduates of hospital administration, nursing superintendent, supervisors and cross section of staff nurses who participated in the study. We thank the institute statistician for assisting data analysis.

Conflict of Interest

There is no conflict of interest among or between authors of the study.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bonam Soujanya Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Md. Sameer
    • 1
  • S. B. Vishnu murthy
    • 1
  • G. S. C. N. V. Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Hospital AdministrationNarayana Medical College and HospitalNelloreIndia

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