Stabilization of Contaminated Soil in a Landfill Site with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

  • Ramiz RajaEmail author
  • Supriya Pal


The aim of the present work is to examine the efficacy of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) as an additive to improve the engineering properties of contaminated soft soil. The soil is contaminated with heavy metals such as zinc, lead and copper. In this study, emphasis was given on engineering property improvement of the stabilized soil. Various soil physical parameters were determined as per guidelines depicted in BIS 2720. The dry density, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and specific gravity (G) values of the soil increased substantially with the increasing amount (5, 10 and 15%) of GGBFS addition in the contaminated soil. The specific gravity and UCS values of collected soil were improved from 2.31 to 2.65 and 95 to 1877 kN/m2, respectively, when 15% of GGBFS was added to the untreated soil. The maximum dry density (MDD) of the untreated soil was improved from 1.32 to 1.90 g/cc for 15% addition of GGBFS. The concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cu in the contaminated soil were decreased by 70, 80 and 77%, respectively, after blending with GGBFS of 15% at a curing time of 28 days. The decrease in metal leachability and increase of strength properties of the contaminated soil clearly show that GGBFS material has a potential to be used as an additive for contaminated land stabilization and reclamation.


Contaminated soil Heavy metals Leaching GGBFS Shear strength Stabilization 



The authors are thankful to the Director, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal, India for providing necessary assistance for carrying out the present research.


  1. BIS 2720. Methods of test for soils. New Delhi, India: BIS.Google Scholar
  2. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. (2007). Canadian environmental quality guidelines.Google Scholar
  3. Du, Y. J., Wei, M. L., Reddy, K. R., Jin, F., Wu, H. L., & Liu, Z. B. (2014). New phosphate-based binder for stabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals: Leaching, strength and microstructure characterization. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Estabragh, A. R., Kholoosi, M. M., Ghaziani, F., & Javadi, A. A. (2017). Stabilization and solidification of a clay soil contaminated with MTBE. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 143(9), 04017054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Horpibulsuk, S., Rachan, R., & Raksachon, Y. (2009). Role of fly ash on strength and microstructure development in blended cement stabilized silty clay. Soils and Foundations, 49(1), 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ismail, M. A., Joer, H. A., Randolph, M. F., & Meritt, A. (2002). Cementation of porous materials using calcite. Geotechnique, 52(5), 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Maheshwari, R., Gupta, S., & Das, K. (2015). Impact of landfill waste on health: An overview. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 01(04), 17–23.Google Scholar
  8. Maiti, S. K., De, S., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Characterization of leachate and its impact on surface and groundwater quality of a closed dumpsite—A case study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35(2016), 391–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Rachman, R. M., Bahri, A. S., & Trihadiningrum, Y. (2018). Stabilization and solidification of tailings from a traditional gold mine using Portland cement. Environmental Engineering Research, 23(02), 189–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (1992). Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Method 1311, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. Wang, J. R., Ma, B. G., & Li, X. G. (2014). The solidification and hydration products of magnesium phosphate cement with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. Journal of Functional Materials, 45(5), 5060–5064.Google Scholar
  12. Xi, Y., Wu, X., & Xiong, H. (2014). Solidification/stabilization of Pb-contaminated soils with cement and other additives. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 23(08), 887–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Xia, W. Y., Feng, Y. S., Du, Y. J., Reddy, K. R., & Wei, M. L. (2018). Solidification and stabilization of heavy metal contaminated industrial site soil using KMP binder. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(6), 04018080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Zhang, Z., et al. (2015). Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 288, 140–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentNational Institute of Technology DurgapurDurgapurIndia

Personalised recommendations