Thailand is developing from a predominantly rural country to a more urban one, approximately 49% of total population nowadays live in urban areas and cities (Plecher in Thailand: urbanization from 2007 to 2017, 2019). This is due to its strong economic development and continuously growing infrastructure. In the past 15 years, Thailand population increased from 58.3 to 66.2 million people, while electricity per capita increased by 196%, which is from 945.9 to 1850.1 kWh per person (Energy Policy and Planning Office in Energy statistics of Thailand 2018. Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 2018). This means the demand for electricity increases rapidly every year. Natural gas has always been the main source of power generation, which contributes approximately 60% of all energy sources (Fig. 1.1). Nevertheless, the amount of natural gas extracted from Thailand is still limited, resulting in an increasing need to import natural gas from other countries. The substantial amount of imported natural gas results in rising of electricity production cost and instability of energy in Thailand. Reliance on natural gas overseas usually directs to dependency on only a few types of fossil fuels, risking to national energy sustainability.
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