Advertisement

Study on Alternate Fuels and Their Effect on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

  • Sreelekha EtikyalaEmail author
  • Vamshi Krishna Gunda
Chapter
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)

Abstract

With strict environmental legislations and to reduce related health hazards, there is immense focus on reducing particulates from gasoline direct injection engines. With increasing use of biofuels in the market, their blends with hydrocarbon fuels are also being considered as cleaner alternatives to gasoline. This chapter confers the addition of oxygenates to gasoline and their capacity to reduce sooting tendency compared to gasoline. Challenges related to optimizing combustion by appropriately choosing engine parameters such as start of ignition, duration of injection, etc. have been addressed. Optimizing combustion can reduce the particulate emissions, by sometimes increasing efficiency. Oxygenated fuels always have the advantage of higher oxidation of soot formed inside the cylinder, which further reduces particulate emissions. Towards the end of this chapter, disadvantages of using oxygenated fuel blends or alternate fuels are discussed.

Keywords

Particulate matter Legislation Gasoline blends Renewable fuels 

References

  1. Bae C, Kim J (2017) Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Proc Combust Inst 36(3):3389–3413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernstein JA et al (2004) Health effects of air pollution. J Allergy Clin ImmunolGoogle Scholar
  3. Bock N, Jeon J, Kittelson D, Northrop W (2019) Effects of fuel properties on particle number and particle mass emissions from lean and stoichiometric gasoline direct injection engine operation. SAE Tech Pap Ser 1:1–13Google Scholar
  4. Burke SC, Ratcliff M, McCormick R, Rhoads R, Windom B (2017) Distillation-based droplet modeling of non-ideal oxygenated gasoline blends: investigating the role of droplet evaporation on PM emissions. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 10(1):69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cassee FR et al (2011) Exposure, health and ecological effects review of engineered nanoscale cerium and cerium oxide associated with its use as a fuel additive. Crit Rev Toxicol 41(3):213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cataluña R, da Silva R, de Menezes EW, Ivanov RB (2008) Specific consumption of liquid biofuels in gasoline fuelled engines. Fuel 87(15–16):3362–3368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan TW, Meloche E, Kubsh J, Brezny R (2014) Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter. Environ Sci Technol 48(10):6027–6034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Claxton LD (2015) The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions: part 5. Summary, comparisons, and conclusions. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 763:103–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eastwood P (2008) Particulate emissions from vehiclesGoogle Scholar
  10. Elfasakhany A (2016) Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine. Eng Sci Technol Int J 19(3):1224–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. European Committee for Standardization (2008) European standard EN 228Google Scholar
  12. Gogoi B et al (2015) Effects of 2,5-dimethylfuran addition to diesel on soot nanostructures and reactivity. Fuel 159:766–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gu X, Huang Z, Cai J, Gong J, Wu X, Lee CF (2012) Emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fuelled with gasoline-n-butanol blends in combination with EGR. Fuel 93(2012):611–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guerrero Peña GDJ, Hammid YA, Raj A, Stephen S, Anjana T, Balasubramanian V (2018) On the characteristics and reactivity of soot particles from ethanol-gasoline and 2,5-dimethylfuran-gasoline blends. Fuel 222:42–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He X, Ratcliff MA, Zigler BT (2012) Effects of gasoline direct injection engine operating parameters on particle number emissions. Energy Fuels 26(4):2014–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  17. Indicator Assessment (2015) Emissions of primary particles and secondary particulate matter precursors. European Environment AgencyGoogle Scholar
  18. Jin C, Yao M, Liu H, Lee CFF, Ji J (2011) Progress in the production and application of n-butanol as a biofuel. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(2011):4080–4106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson T, Joshi A (2017) Review of vehicle engine efficiency and emissions. SAE technical papers 2017-01-0907Google Scholar
  20. Leach F, Stone R, Richardson D (2013) The influence of fuel properties on particulate number emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engineGoogle Scholar
  21. Leach FCP et al (2018) The effect of oxygenate fuels on PN emissions from a highly boosted GDI engine. Fuel 225:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lemaire R, Therssen E, Desgroux P (2010) Effect of ethanol addition in gasoline and gasoline-surrogate on soot formation in turbulent spray flames. Fuel 89(12):3952–3959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lemaire R, Lapalme D, Seers P (2015) Analysis of the sooting propensity of C-4 and C-5 oxygenates: comparison of sooting indexes issued from laser-based experiments and group additivity approaches. Combust Flame 162(9):3140–3155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu Y et al (2015) Particulate matter, gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban traffic tunnel of China: emission from on-road vehicles and gas-particle partitioning. Chemosphere 134:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maione M et al (2016) Air quality and climate change: designing new win-win policies for Europe. Environ Sci Policy 65:48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Masum BM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rizwanul Fattah IM, Palash SM, Abedin MJ (2013) Effect of ethanol-gasoline blend on NOx emission in SI engine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 24:209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mohd Murad SH, Camm J, Davy M, Stone R, Richardson D (2016) Spray behaviour and particulate matter emissions with M15 methanol/gasoline blends in a GDI engine. SAE InternationalGoogle Scholar
  28. Myung CL, Park S, Myung CL, Park S (2012) Exhaust nanoparticle emissions from internal combustion engines: a review. Int J Automot Technol 13(1):9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qin J, Li X, Pei Y (2014) Effects of combustion parameters and lubricating oil on particulate matter emissions from a turbo-charged GDI engine fueled with methanol/gasoline blends. SAE InternationalGoogle Scholar
  30. Raza M, Chen L, Leach F, Ding S (2018) A review of particulate number (PN) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines and their control techniques. Energies 11Google Scholar
  31. Saliba G et al (2017) Comparison of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle emissions: emission certification standards, cold-start, secondary organic aerosol formation potential, and potential climate impacts. Environ Sci Technol 51(11):6542–6552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schifter I, González U, González-Macías C (2016) Effects of ethanol, ethyl-tert-butyl ether and dimethyl-carbonate blends with gasoline on SI engine. Fuel 183:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharma N, Agarwal AK (2018) Gasoline direct injection engines and particulate emissions, pp 87–105Google Scholar
  34. Storey JM, Barone T, Norman K, Lewis S (2010) Ethanol blend effects on direct injection spark-ignition gasoline vehicle particulate matter emissions. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 3(2):650–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tanaka K et al (2015) Ignition characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran compared with gasoline and ethanol. SAE Int J Engines 9(1):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tao L et al (2014) Techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment of cellulosic isobutanol and comparison with cellulosic ethanol and n-butanol. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 8(1):30–48MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Turner JWG, Pearson RJ, Dekker E, Iosefa B, Johansson K, ac Bergström K (2013) Extending the role of alcohols as transport fuels using iso-stoichiometric ternary blends of gasoline, ethanol and methanol. Appl EnergyGoogle Scholar
  38. Überall A, Otte R, Eilts P, Krahl J (2015) A literature research about particle emissions from engines with direct gasoline injection and the potential to reduce these emissions. Fuel 147(2015):203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang X et al (2015) Evaluation on toxic reduction and fuel economy of a gasoline direct injection- (GDI-)powered passenger car fueled with methanol-gasoline blends with various substitution ratios. Appl Energy 157:134–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wittmann J-H, Menger L (2017) Novel index for evaluation of particle formation tendencies of fuels with different chemical compositions. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 10(3):690–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wyman CE, Hinman ND (1990) Ethanol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 24(1):735–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang Z, Wang T, Jia M, Wei Q, Meng X, Shu G (2014) Combustion and particle number emissions of a direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline and n-butanol/gasoline blends with exhaust gas recirculation. Fuel 130(2014):177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zimmerman N, Wang JM, Jeong CH, Wallace JS, Evans GJ (2016) Assessing the climate trade-offs of gasoline direct injection engines. Environ Sci Technol 50(15):8385–8392CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Volvo Cars CorporationGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations