Advertisement

Designing a New Water Future for Israelis and Palestinians

  • David B. BrooksEmail author
  • Julie Trottier
  • Giulia Giordano
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs on Case Studies of Sustainable Development book series (BRIEFSCSSD)

Abstract

This chapter begins with what a brief description of water management and water governance in each Israel, Palestine, and Jordan, as well as a review of non-governmental and of private organizations involved with water management in the region. It then shifts attention toward a new approach for managing and governing shared water both from a conceptual perspective and then from a specific approach known as the EcoPeace Proposal, which could be applied now, in advance of a Final Status Agreement between Israel and Palestine. It is no surprise that such a proposal has come in for review and critique, the most important of which are presented and then critiqued in this chapter.

References

  1. Alatout ST (2007) From water abundance to water scarcity (1936–1959): A “fluid” history of Jewish subjectivity in historic Palestine and Israel. In: Sandy Sufian S, LeVine M (eds) Reapproaching borders: new perspectives on the study of Israel-Palestine. Bowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD, USA, pp 199–219Google Scholar
  2. Alatout ST (2008) Locating the fragments of the state and their limits: water policymaking In Israel during the 1950s. Israel Policy Forum 25(1):40–65Google Scholar
  3. Assaf K, Al Khatib N, Kally H, Shuval H (1993) A proposal for the development of a regional water master plan—prepared by a joint Israeli-Palestinian Team. Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  4. Beaumont P (2002) Water policies for the Middle East in the 21st Century: the new economic realities. Int J Water Resour Dev 18(2):315–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biswas A, Tortajada C (2005) Appraising sustainable development: water management and environmental challenges. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouillon ME (2004) The peace business: money and power in the Palestine-Israel conflict. I. B. Tauris, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandes OM, Curran D (2016) Changing currents: a case study in the evolution of water law in western Canada. In: Renzetti S, Dupont DP (eds) Water policy and governance in Canada. Springer, New York, pp 45–67Google Scholar
  8. Brooks DB (2006) An operational definition of water demand management. Int J Water Resour Dev 22(4):521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooks DB, Trottier J (2012) An agreement to share water between Israelis and Palestinians: the FoEME Proposal—revised version. Friends of the Earth Middle East, Amman, Bethlehem and Tel AvivGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks DB, Thompson L, El Fattal L (2007) Water demand management in the Middle East and North Africa: observations from the IDRC forums and lessons for the future. Water Int 32(2):193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coskum BB (2009) Cooperation over water resources as a tool for desecuritisation: The Israeli-Palestinian environmental NGOs as desecuritising actors. Eur J Econ Polit Stud 2(2):97–115Google Scholar
  12. Dinar A, Tsur Y (eds) (2017) Management of transboundary water resources under scarcity. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  13. Elbayar K (2005) Middle East NGO laws in selected Arab states. Int J Not-for-Profit Law 7(4):3–27Google Scholar
  14. Feitelson E (2013) The four eras of Israeli water policies. In: Becker N (ed) Water policy in Israel: context, issues and options. Springer, Dodrecht, Netherlands, pp 15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feitelson E, Haddad M (eds) (2000) Management of shared groundwater resources: The Israeli-Palestinian Case with an international perspective. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, and Kluwer Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  16. Feitelson E, Fischhendler I (2006) Politics and Institutions for groundwater management in a system-wide context. In: Presentation at the international symposium on groundwater sustainability, Alicante, Spain (January)Google Scholar
  17. Feitelson E, Haddad M (1998a) Identification of joint management structures for shared aquifers: a cooperative Palestinian-Israeli effort. World Bank technical paper No. 415. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feitelson E, Haddad M (1998b) A stepwise open-ended approach to the identification of joint management structures for shared aquifers (Israel and Palestinian Authority). Water Int 23(4):227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feitelson E, Tamimi A, Rosenthal G (2012) Climate change and security in the Israeli-Palestinian context. J Peace Research 49(1):241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fischhendler I (2015) The securitization of water discourse: theoretical foundations, research gaps and objectives of the special issue. Int Environ Agreements: Polit Law Econ 15(3):245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fleck J (2016) Water is for fighting over, and other myths about water in the West. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2008) Climate change: implications for agriculture in the Near East. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Middle East. In: Report for 29th FAO regional conference for the Near East (NERC/08/INF/5), RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Freimuth L, Bromberg G, Meyher M, Al-Khatib N (2007) Climate change: a new threat to Middle East security. Friends of the Earth Middle East, Amman, Bethlehem and Tel AvivGoogle Scholar
  24. Ge Y Li X, Cai X et al (2018) Converting UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) to decision-making objectives and implementation options at the river basin scale. Sustainability 10(4):1056.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grover VI, Krantzberg G (2015) Transboundary water management: lessons from North America. Water Int 48(1):183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haasnoot M, Middlekoop H, Offersmans A, van Beek E, van Deursen WPA (2012) Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment. Clim Change 115(3–4):795–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haddadin MJ (2002) Water in the Middle East peace process. Geogr J 168(4):324–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Humpel D El-Naser H Irani K, Sitton J, Renshaw K, GleitsmanB (2012) A review of water policies in Jordan and recommendations for strategic priorities. USAID/Jordan/WREGoogle Scholar
  29. Inga C (ed) (2019) Climate change, water security, and national security for Jordan, Palestine, and Israel. EcoPeace Middle East, Amman, Ramallah, Tel AvivGoogle Scholar
  30. Jägerskog A (2003) Why states cooperate over shared water: the water negotiations in the Jordan River basin. Department of Water and Environmental Studies, University of Linköping, Linköping, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  31. Karakaya M (2019) The failure of the NGO’s for democratization: Egypt, Palestine & Jordan. Middle East Technical University, Graduate School of Social Sciences, Term Paper for Society in the Modern Middle East, Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  32. Kay P, Mitchell B (2000) Measuring sustainability in Israel’s water system. Water Int 25(4):617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khalidi R, Daya W, Hashash AA, Jabareen A (2019) Political economy analysis of the Palestinian private sector. Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute (MAS), RamallahGoogle Scholar
  34. Kliot N, Shmueli D (1998) Real and ideal institutional frameworks for managing the common Arab-Israeli water resources. Water Int 23(4):216–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lautze J, Kirshen P (2009) Water allocation, climate change, and sustainable water use: the Palestinian position. Water Int 34(2):189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lautze J, Reeves M, Vega R, Kirshen P (2005) Water allocation, climate change, and sustainable peace: the Israeli proposal. Water Int 30(2):197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Libiszewski S (1995) Water disputes in the Jordan basin region and their role in the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, and Swiss Peace Foundation, BernGoogle Scholar
  38. Linton J (2010) What is water? The history of a modern abstraction. University of British Columbia Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  39. Lithwick H (2000) Evaluating water balances in Israel. In: Brooks DB, Mehment O (eds) Water balances in the eastern Mediterranean. IDRC Books, Ottawa, pp 29–58Google Scholar
  40. Loehman E, Becker N (2006) Cooperation in a hydro-geologic commons: new institutions and pricing to achieve sustainability and security. Int J Water Resour Dev 2(4):603–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lonergan SC, Brooks DB (1994) Watershed: the role of fresh water in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. International Development Research Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  42. Medzini A, Wolf AT (2004) Towards a Middle East at peace: hidden issues in Arab-Israeli hydropolitics. Int J Water Resour Dev 20(2):193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Megdal SB, Varady RG, Eden S (eds) (2013) Shared borders, shared waters: Israeli-Palestinian and Colorado River basin water challenges. CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  44. Nour R, Al-Saidi M (2018) Regulation reform process and perception in the Palestinian water sector. Water Int 43(7):908–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peralta RC, Luck AH, Hagan R (2011) Strategic optimization for implementing the Jordanian National Water Master Plan. Water Int 36(3):295–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rosenthal G, Katz D (2010) An economic analysis of policy options for water conservation in Israel. Kivun Consulting, Tel AvivGoogle Scholar
  47. Sa’ed RA (2010) A policy framework for trans-boundary waste-water Issues along the Green Line, The Israeli-Palestinian border. Int J Environ Stud 67(6):937–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salameh E (1990) Jordan’s water resources: development and future prospects. J American-Arab Affairs 33:69–77Google Scholar
  49. Shuval HI (1995) Towards resolving conflicts over water between Israel and its neighbours: the Israeli-Palestinian shared use of the Mountain Aquifer as a case study. Israel Aff 2(1):215–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shuval HI (2011) Comments on “Confronting water in the Israel-Palestinian peace agreement” by David Brooks and Julie Trottier. J Hydrology 397:146–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Söderbaum P (2005) Actors, problem perceptions, strategies for sustainable development. Water policy in relation to paradigms, ideologies, and institutions. In: Biswas AK, Tortajada C (eds) Appraising sustainable development: water management and environmental challenges. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp 81–111Google Scholar
  52. Söderbaum P (2009) Science, politics and water management for sustainability: economics as example. Water Int 34(4):432–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sowers J, Vengosh A, Weinthal E (2011) Climate change, water resources, and the politics of adaptation in the Middle East and North Africa. Clim Change 104(3–4):599–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Staddon C, Scott CA (2018) Putting water security to work: addressing global challenges. Water Int 43(8):1017–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Subramanian A, Brown B, Wolf A (2012) Reaching across the waters: facing the risks of cooperation in international waters. In: Water papers. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  56. Tal A (2006) Seeking sustainability: Israel’s evolving water management strategy. Science 313(5790):1081–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Trottier J (1999) Hydropolitics in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. PASSIA Publications, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  58. Trottier J (2007) A wall, water and power: The Israeli separation fence. Rev Int Stud 33(1):105–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Trottier J (2008) Water crises: political construction or physical reality? Contemp Polit 14(2):197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trottier J (2013) The social construction of water management at the intersection of international conflict: the case of Al Auja. Eurorient 44:161–181Google Scholar
  61. Trottier J (2019) Palestinian water management—policies and pitfalls. PASSIA Bulletin, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  62. Trottier J, Brooks DB (2013) Academic tribes and transboundary water management: water in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Sci Diplomacy 2:2Google Scholar
  63. Trottier J, Rondier A, Perrier J (2019) Palestinians and donors playing with fire: 25 years of water projects in the West Bank. Int J Water Resour Dev.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2019.1617679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vickers A (2001) Handbook of water use and conservation. Waterplow Press, Amherst, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  65. World Bank (2009) Assessment of restrictions on Palestinian water sector development. Sector note for West Bank and Gaza, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  66. World Bank Group (2018) Securing water for development in West Bank and Gaza: Sector Note. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  67. Zeitoun, M (2007) The conflict versus cooperation paradox: fighting over or sharing of Palestinian-Israeli groundwater. Water Int 36(2):105–120Google Scholar
  68. Zeitoun M (2009) The political economy of water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: a synthesis of findings. International Development Research Centre/WaDImena, OttawaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Brooks
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julie Trottier
    • 2
  • Giulia Giordano
    • 3
  1. 1.University of VictoriaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.ART-Dev, Site Saint-CharleDirectrice de Recherche CNRSMontpellierFrance
  3. 3.EcoPeace Middle EastTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations