Tourism and Europe’s Shifting Periphery: Post-Franco Spain and Post-Socialist Bulgaria

  • Max HolleranEmail author


This chapter shows how the efforts to spur cohesion between the wealthier European core and the poorer periphery yielded thriving property markets due to infrastructure grants, dismantling of foreign investment barriers, and increased international tourism. Coastal tourism spaces were particularly attractive because of the early Spanish success at re-orienting the economy using tourism and construction in the late Franco years. Much of this growth was also an effort, started by the European Community in the 1980s, to shore up post-dictatorial societies in Southern Europe by improving their economies in the hopes of nurturing fledgling democratic institutions. This model was then used in post-socialist Europe, illustrated in this chapter using the case of Black Sea tourism in post-socialist Bulgaria. This chapter shows that the grant-making process for infrastructure loans always had political goals but that these goals often went unrealized after economic priorities were achieved.


EU cohesion Tourism Development grants Post-socialism 


  1. Allen, Judith, James Barlow, Jesús Leal, Thomas Maloutas, and Liliana Padovani. 2004. Housing and Welfare in Southern Europe. Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, Perry. 2009. The New Old World. London; New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, Jerome, Sonia Hirt, and Alexander Slaev. 2012. Planning in Market Conditions: The Performance of Bulgarian Tourism Planning during the Post-Socialist Transformation. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 29 (4): 318–334.Google Scholar
  4. Aranda, Marta Luque, and Carmelo Pellejero Martínez. 2015. Crisis del petróleo, transición a la democracia y frenazo de la expansión turística en España, 1973–1985. Cuadernos de Historia Contemporánea 37: 114–144.Google Scholar
  5. Aronczyk, Melissa. 2013. Branding the Nation: The Global Business of National Identity. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belcheva, Svilena. 2008. Kompleks ot 30 vili se izgrazhda kraĭ Kranevo. Dnevnik. 27 March.
  7. Berman, Sheri. 2006. The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and the Making of Europe’s Twentieth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance de l’Europe. 1989. University of Luxembourg. Address Given by Jacques Delors.
  9. Centro de Estudios Económicos Tomillo. 1999. Member State Report 1994–9. Ex-Post Evaluation of Objective 1 Programmes 1994–1999 – Member State Report Spain. Centro de Estudios Económicos Tomillo.
  10. Commission of the European Communities. 1987. European Regional Development Fund. Brussels: Archive of European Integration, University of Pittsburgh.
  11. Crespo MacLennan, Julio. 2000. Spain and the Process of European Integration, 1957–85. In Political Change and Europeanism. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  12. Degen, Mónica, and Marisol García. 2012. The Transformation of the ‘Barcelona Model’: An Analysis of Culture, Urban Regeneration and Governance. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36 (5): 1022–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Derluguian, Georgi M. 2005. Bourdieu’s Secret Admirer in the Caucasus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  14. Deutsche Welle. 2007. Bulgaria Tries to Avoid Mass-Tourism Quagmire, 12/08/2007.
  15. Ditchev, Ivaylo. 2003. Sotsialisticheskata urbanizatsiya i krŭgovete na grazhdanstvo. Sotsiologicheski Problemi 1–2: 33–63.Google Scholar
  16. Dunn, Elizabeth C. 2004. Privatizing Poland: Baby Food, Big Business, and the Remaking of Labor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  17. European Commission. 2000. Towards Quality Coastal Tourism. European Commission.
  18. ———. 2002. EU Support for Tourism Enterprises and Tourist Destinations. European Commission Report.
  19. ———. 2007. The European Tourism Industry in the Enlarged Community: Gaps Are Potentials and Opportunities. European Commission.
  20. Gamble, Andrew. 1994. The Free Economy and the Strong State: The Politics of Thatcherism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ganev, Venelin I. 2007. Preying on the State: The Transformation of Bulgaria after 1989. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  22. García, Marisol. 2010. The Breakdown of the Spanish Urban Growth Model: Social and Territorial Effects of the Global Crisis. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34 (4): 967–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghodsee, Kristen Rogheh. 2005. The Red Riviera: Gender, Tourism, and Postsocialism on the Black Sea. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. González, Sara. 2011. Bilbao and Barcelona ‘in Motion’. How Urban Regeneration ‘Models’ Travel and Mutate in the Global Flows of Policy Tourism. Urban Studies 48 (7): 1397–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gorsuch, Anne E., and Diane Koenker. 2006. Turizm. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hirt, Sonia. 2012. Iron Curtains Gates, Suburbs, and Privatization of Space in the Post-Socialist City. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Holleran, Max. 2015. On the Beach: The Changing Meaning of the Bulgarian Coast after 1989. City & Society 27 (3): 232–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Judt, Tony. 2006. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  29. Linz, Juan José. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  30. López, Isidro, and Emmanuel Rodríguez. 2011. The Spanish Model. New Left Review 69 (June): 5–29.Google Scholar
  31. Manera, Carlos, and Jaume Garau-Taberner. 2009. The Transformation of the Economic Model of the Balearic Islands: The Pioneers of Mass Tourism. In Europe at the Seaside: The Economic History of Mass Tourism in the Mediterranean, ed. Luciano Segreto et al. London: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  32. Marks, Gary, et al. 1996. Governance in the European Union. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martin, Robert. 1985. Tourists Pour like Rain on Spain. The Globe and Mail. 16 February.Google Scholar
  34. McCathie, Andrew. 1987. Spain Seeks to Change Its Tourist Image. Australian Financial Review 28 (October): 80.Google Scholar
  35. Moreno, Luis. 2013. The Federalization of Spain. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moyn, Samuel. 2012. The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Muschamp, Herbert. 1997. The Miracle in Bilbao. New York Times. 7 September.
  38. Naredo, José Manuel. 2010. El Modelo Inmobiliario Español Y Sus Consecuencias. Boletín CF+S, no. 44.
  39. National Public Radio. 2013. Activists Offer Protest Tour of Spain’s Modern Ruins. Podcast. Weekend Edition Saturday.
  40. Pack, Sasha. 2006. Tourism and Dictatorship. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parsons, Craig. 2006. A Certain Idea of Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Rabinow, Paul. 1995. French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rojek, Chris. 1995. Decentring Leisure Rethinking Leisure Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Rosamond, Ben. 2000. Theories of European Integration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  45. Scharpf, Fritz W. 1999. Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schmitter, Philippe C. 2000. How to Democratize the European Union … and Why Bother? Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Seed Act. 2007. Enterprise Funds in Central And Eastern Europe And Central Asia 1990–2007. The Enterprise Funds Exchange of Experiences. Seed Act.
  48. Stanilov, Kiril. 2007. The Post-Socialist City Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Todorova, Maria. 2009. Imagining the Balkans. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Urbain, Jean-Didier. 2003. At The Beach. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  51. Velarde, Juan. 1994. La nueva política económica española y el informe del Banco Mundial. Cuadernos de Información Económica 90: 209–224.Google Scholar
  52. Verdery, Katherine. 1996. What Was Socialism, and What Comes Next? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Walton, John K. 2011. Seaside Resorts and International Tourism. In Touring Beyond the Nation: A Transnational Approach to European Tourism History, ed. Eric G.E. Zuelow. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Zinganel, Michael, Elke Beyer, and Hagemann Anke. 2013. Holidays after the Fall: Seaside Architecture and Urbanism in Bulgaria and Croatia. Berlin: Jovis.Google Scholar
  56. Zuelow, Eric G.E. 2016. A History of Modern Tourism. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social and Political SciencesUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations