Review of the Impact of Vehicle-to-Grid Schemes on Electrical Power Systems
The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes plug-in electric vehicles (PEV), such as battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), communicate with the power grid and sell demand response services by either returning electricity to the grid or by restricting their charging rate. Simultaneous charging of EV fleet can lead to an excessive loading, under-voltages and energy losses in distribution networks. On the other hand, the EVs in their idle mode has the ability to feed power back to grid which is useful for active power balancing, peak shaving, and stability enhancement. This paper reviews the V2G schemes to assess their impacts on the electrical power systems. The framework for coordinated operation of EVs with renewable energy sources in the various electricity markets was reviewed. The EVs’ capability in energy loss minimization and provision of ancillary services such as frequency and voltage control was also investigated.
KeywordsAncillary service Demand-side management Electric vehicle Optimal charging scheme Vehicle-to-grid
This work was partly supported by Royal Academy of Engineering under Newton-Bhabha Fund with grant reference IAPP(I)\19 for “Industry-Academia Collaborative Project to Address System Wide Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources in Engineering Program”.
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