Introduction of HIV Transmission

  • D. M. Basavarajaiah
  • Bhamidipati Narasimha Murthy


HIV is a scourge and transmitted mainly in four ways, viz., through sexual intercourse and blood transfusion, among injecting drug users, and from mother to child (MTC) (Conner et al. 1994). However, there are individual differences in the ability to transmit and acquire HIV, which remain unexplained (Abbink et al. 2003; Adriaanse et al. 1995; Agrawal et al. 2013; Ahmed et al. 1992; Aitkhaled et al. 1998; Alary et al. 2010). HIV transmission, as a result of sexual intercourse, accounts for about three quarters of all HIV infections worldwide (WHO 2018). HIV is therefore a sexually transmitted disease (STD); the majority of the world’s infections have been acquired through intercourse between men and women (heterosexual transmission) (Kretzschmar et al. 2001). A number of studies pertaining to HIV transmission at global level showed that the likelihood of HIV was found to be statistically in an increasing trend in poor and developing countries, with the number of sexual partners and anal receptive intercourse among gay population (WHO 2015; Agarwala et al. 2002). As with some other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV infection can also be transmitted through blood, for example, medical transfusion of infected blood or blood products, or from the use of contaminated injection and equipments by intravenous drug users (Rollins et al. 2007). The transmission of HIV from mother to child includes transmission during pregnancy, during delivery, and through breastfeeding (Mustapha et al. 2010). Infected children under 15 years (≤ 15 years) have contracted the virus by transmission from their mothers; their number reflects the prevalence in women of childbearing age (Ayaya et al. 2013). The schematic HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT) flow diagram and their risk factors are presented in Fig. 1.1. Different modes of HIV transmission were previously studied by Akaike et al. (1971), Akpa et al. (2010), Alary et al. (2010), Alimenti et al. (1991), Anderson et al. (1998), Anderson et al. (1986), Andrea et al. (2008), Andrijich et al. (2001), Anon et al. (1999), Arias et al. (1997), Arya et al. (1998), Avert et al. (2008), Ayaya et al. (2013), and Bai and Yin (1998).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Basavarajaiah
    • 1
  • Bhamidipati Narasimha Murthy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Statistics and Computer ScienceVeterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences UniversityBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsNational Institute of Epidemiology, ICMRChennaiIndia

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