The Mekong Delta (MD) is located in South Vietnam and has a total area of 39,713 km2, accounting for 12% of the country’s area. It is a well-endowed area with an abundance of agricultural resources. In the transition to the market-oriented economy since the late 1980s, the MD has contributed to the country’s strong economic growth by maintaining stable agricultural productivity and high export values for agricultural products. Despite its performance, the MD is facing several challenges including environmental degradation, pollution, and climate change. These issues cause unpredictable changes to the MD, its people, and economies. In addition, flooding in urban and rural areas in recent years has caused damage and losses to residents and businesses. The MD is currently a home to about 18 million people, and nearly 70% of them live in rural areas where access to safe water is a problem. Over-extracting groundwater and the risk of unsafe water use threaten livelihoods in the region. Dealing with these issues, this book provides scientific evidence and policy recommendations based on studies over 15 years in the fields of natural resources and environmental economics.