Closing Thoughts

  • Cristina Castel-Branco
  • Guida Carvalho


The story of the early Portuguese-Japanese relationship is scarcely known. Few people are aware of the many cultural, scientific, artistic and social exchanges that took place during the sixteenth century in Japan. Frois’ account confirms that before the extradition edicts were implemented and the hard times that followed, the commercial, cultural, and some religious exchanges were fruitful. And we acknowledge that this book largely focuses on this unique and progressive period during the Age of Discovery. From the research gleaned from these manuscripts, we can state with confidence that two periods may be identified: during the first nearly half-century between 1550 and 1597, the two cultures enjoyed fertile entente; the second period starts after 1596 when the prosecutions began and lasted for a half century. We felt compelled to research the facts confirming that for quite some time a collaborative relationship did exist between Europeans and Japanese in the late-sixteenth century. Through the gardens, art, and written accounts of the period, we represent facts and historical testimonies that complete a portrait of a time and place that is truly exceptional in the history of intercultural exchanges.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Castel-Branco
    • 1
  • Guida Carvalho
    • 2
  1. 1.Landscape Architecture Professor; Department of Natural Resources and Landscape, School of AgronomyUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.ACB Landscape Architecture StudioLandscape Architect, MLA University of LisbonLisbonPortugal

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