Advertisement

Fly Ash and Its Utilization in Indian Agriculture: Constraints and Opportunities

  • Ch. Srinivasa RaoEmail author
  • C. Subha Lakshmi
  • Vishal Tripathi
  • Rama Kant Dubey
  • Y. Sudha Rani
  • B. Gangaiah
Chapter

Abstract

Indian electricity generation is majorly dependent on thermal energy by burning the coal producing large amount of fly ash as by-product. Dumping and disposal of fly ash in ponds and land is a routine practice which raises various environmental concerns. Hence, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Govt. of India has made continuous efforts for proper utilization and disposal of fly ash. This by-product’s rich nutrient content has opened doors for its utilization in agriculture rising a tremendous potential in improving crop productivity and soil health. Besides its nutrient efficiency, fly ash treatment showed a significant result in agricultural insect-pest control. However, agricultural use of fly ash is quite limited in comparison to other sectors of India. MoEFCC has revised norms of fly ash usage and also made a mandate for supplying fly ash free of cost to farmers in the radius of three hundred kilometres. Fly ash is also an excellent substitute for reclamation of low-lying areas and helps in restoration and protection of topsoil layer; with an ever-increasing demand for electricity production in India, fly ash production will also increase. Thus, it is high time to explore the untapped potential of fly ash utilization in Indian agriculture for its sustainable management particularly for timber, ornamental, jute and fibre crops and other agriculture and food systems after proper quality testing.

Keywords

Agriculture productivity Fly ash Land restoration Soil health 

References

  1. Abhilash, P. C., Tripathi, V., Edrisi, S. A., Dubey, R. K., Bakshi, M., Dubey, P. K., et al. (2016). Sustainability of crop production from polluted lands. Energy, Ecology, and the Environment, 1(1), 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adholeya, A., Bhatia, N. P., Kanwar, S., & Kumar, S. (1998). Fly ash source and substrate for growth of sustainable agro-forestry system. In Proceedings of Regional Workshop cum Symposium on Fly Ash Disposal and Utilization. Organized by Kota Thermal Power Station, RSEB, Kota, and Rajasthan, India.Google Scholar
  3. Adriano, D. C., Weber, J., Bola, N. S., Paramasivam, S., Koo, B-J, & Sajwan, K. S. (2002). Effects of high rates of coal fly ash on soil, turfgrass, and groundwater quality. Water, Air, and Soil pollution, 139, 365–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adriano, D. C., Page, A. L., Elseewi, A., Chang, A. C., & Straughan. (1980). Utilization and disposal of fly ash other coal residues in terrestrial ecosystems: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 9, 333–344.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmaruzzaman, M. (2010). A review on the utilization of flyash. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 36, 327–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asokan, P., Saxena, M., & Bose, S. K. Z. (1995). In Proceedings of the workshop on Flyash Management in the State of Orissa (pp. 64–75). Bhubaneshwar, India: RRL.Google Scholar
  7. Banerjee, S., Singh, A. K., & Banerjee, S. K. (2003). Impact of fly ash on foliar chemical and biochemical composition of naturally occurring ground flora and its possible utilization for growing tree crops. Indian Forester, 129, 964–978.Google Scholar
  8. Banerjee, S. K., Singh, A. K., Jain, A., Bhowmik, A. K., & Manjhi, R. B. (2001). Pollution absorbing efficiency of tree species in industrial area (85–89). Final report: Fly ash Project. Jabalpur: TFRI Publication.Google Scholar
  9. Basu, M., Bhadoria, P. B. S., & Mahapatra, S. C. (2007). Role of soil amendments in improving groundnut productivity of acid lateritic soils. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(1), 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CEA. (2016–17). Report on fly ash generation at Coal/Lignite Based Thermal Power Stations and its Utilization in the Country for the year 2016–17. Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi, 2017.Google Scholar
  11. Cetin, S., & Pehlivan, E. (2007). The use of fly ash as a low cost, environmentally friendly alternative to activated carbon for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Colloids and Surfaces A, 298, 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chandra, A., & Chandra, H. (2004). Impact of Indian and imported coal on Indian thermal power plants. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 63, 156–162.Google Scholar
  13. Chang, A. C., Lund, L. J., & Page, A. L. (1977). Physical properties of flyash amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 6, 267–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaudhary, D. R., & Ghosh, A. (2013). Bioaccumulation of nutrient elements from fly ash-amended soil in Jatropha curcas L, a biofuel crop. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 6705–6712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, J., & Li, Y. (2006). Coal fly ash as an amendment to container substrate for Spathiphyllum production. Bioresource Technology, 97, 1920–1926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciccu, R., Ghiani, M., Serci, A., Fadda, S., Peretti, R., & Zucca, A. (2003). Heavy metal immobilization in the mining-contaminated soils using various industrial wastes. Minerals Engineering, 16, 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa, B. M. (2016). Sintese de zeolitasa partir de cinzas de carvao para captura de dioxide de carbono. UFRS, Porto Alegre, RS: Mestrado dissertacao.Google Scholar
  18. Dwivedi, S. F., Tripathi, R. D., Srivastava, S., Mishra, S., Shukla, M. K., Tiwari, K. K., et al. (2007). Growth performance and biochemical responses of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in fly-ash amended soil. Chemosphere, 67(1), 140–151.Google Scholar
  19. Eswaran, A., & Manivannan, K. (2007). Effect of foliar application of lignite fly ash on the management pf papaya leaf curl disease. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 740, 271–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fail, J. L., Jr., & Wochok, Z. S. (1977). Soybean growth on fly ash amended strip mine spoils. Plant and Soil, 48, 473–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng, Y. J., Li, F., Wang, X. L., Liu, X. M., & Zhang, L. N. (2006). Principal chemical properties of artificial soil composed of fly ash and furfural residue. Pedosphere, 16(5), 668–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Furr, A. K., Parkinson, T. F., & Gutenmann, W. H. (1978). Elemental content of vegetables, grains and forages field grown on flyash amended soils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 26, 357–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garg, R. N., Pathak, H., & Das, D. K. (2005). Use of flyash and biogas slurry for improving wheat yield and physical properties of soil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 107, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghosh, R. K., & Singh, N. (2012). Managing metolachlor and atrazine leaching losses using lignite fly ash. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goyal, D., Kaur, K., Garg, R., Vijayan, V., Nanda, S. K., Nioding, A., et al. (2002). Industrial fly ash as a soil amendment agent for raising forestry plantations. In P. R. Taylor (Ed.), EPD congress and fundamental of advanced materials for energy conversion (pp. 251–260). Warrendale, PA: TMS Publication.Google Scholar
  26. Gupta, M., Kumar, K., & Yunus, M. (2000). Effect of fly ash on metal composition and physiological responses in Leucaena leucocephala (LAMK.) DE.WIT. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 61, 399–406.Google Scholar
  27. Gupta, A. K., & Sinha, S. (2006). Role of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (var. Vaibhav) in the phytoextraction of Ni from soil amended with fly ash: Selection of extractant for metal bioavailability. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136(2), 371–378. Google Scholar
  28. Jala, S., & Goyal, D. (2010). Fly ash application effects on plant biomass and            bio-concentration of micronutrients in nursery seedlings of Populus deltoides. In 19th World congress of soil science: Soil solutions for a changing world. Procedings Wein, International Union of Soil Sciences Symposium  (pp. 53–56).  Brisbane, 1–6 August 2010.Google Scholar
  29. Jambhulkar, H. P., Shaikh, S. M., & Kumar, M. S. (2018). Fly ash toxicity, emerging issues and possible implications for its exploitation in agriculture; Indian scenario: A review. Chemosphere, 213, 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Konstantinou, I. K., & Albanis, T. A. (2000). Adsorption desorption studies of selected herbicides in soil-fly ash mixtures. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 48, 4780–4790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krishnamoorthy, R. (2000). Ash utilization in India—Prospect and problems. Barrier and utilization option of large volume application of fly ash in India. In V. Hajela (Ed.), Proceedings of the Workshop on USAID/India Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevention Project (pp. 63–67).Google Scholar
  32. Kumar, D., & Singh, B. (2003). The use of coal fly ash in sodic soil reclamation. Land Degradation and Development, 14, 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumpiene, J., Lagerkvist, A., & Maurice, C. (2007). Stabilization of Pb and Cu contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat. Environmental Pollution, 145, 365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lai, K. M., Ye, D. Y., & Wong, J. W. C. (1999). Enzyme activities in a sandy soil amended with sewage sludge and coal fly ash. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 113, 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lau, S. S. S., & Wong, J. W. C. (2001). Toxicity evaluation of weathered coal fly ash amended manure compost. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 128, 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Majumdar, K., & Singh, N. (2007). Effect of soil amendments on sorption and mobility of metribuzin in soils. Chemosphere, 66, 630–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Malik, A., & Thapliyal, A. (2009). Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: Potential for land application. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 39, 333–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Masto, R. E., Mohammad, A., George, J., Selvi, V. A., & Ram, L. C. (2013). Co-application of biochar and lignite fly ash an soil nutrients and biological parameters at different crop growth stages of Zea mays. Ecological Engineering, 58, 314–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matsi, T., & Keramidas, V. Z. (1999). Flyash application on two acid soils and its effect on soil salinity, pH, B, P and on ryegrass growth and composition. Environmental Pollution, 104, 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mattigod, S. V., Dhanpat, R., & Eary, L. E. (1990). Geochemical factors controlling the mobilization of inorganic constituents from fossil fuel combustion residues: I. Review of the major elements. Journal of Environmental Quality, 19, 188–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McCarty, G. W. R., Siddaramappa, R. J., Wright, E. E., & Gao, G. (1994). Evaluation of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials: Their influence on soil pH and enzyme activities. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 17, 147–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mendki, P. S., Maheshwari, V. L., & Kothari, R. M. (2001). Fly-ash as a post-harvest preservation for five commonly utilized pulses. Crop Protection, 20, 241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Menzies, N. W., & Aitken, R. L. (1996). Evaluation of fly ash as component of potting substrates. Scientia Horticulturae, 67, 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mohan, S. (2011). Growth of biodiesel plant in fly ash: A sustainable approach response of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel plant in fly ash amended soil with respect to pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 8, 421–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Montes-Hernandez, G., Perez-Lopez, R., Renard, F., Nieto, J. M., & Charlet, I. (2009). Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of coal combustion fly ash. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 16, 1347–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mupambwa, H. A., Lukashe, N. S., Nyari, P., & Mnkeni, S. (2016). Suitability of fly ash vermicompost as a component of pine bark growing media: Effects on media physicochemical properties and ornamental marigold growth and flowering. Compost Science & Utilization.Google Scholar
  47. Naik, T. R., & Tyson, S. S. (2000). Environmental benefits from the use of coal combustion products (CCP). In C. V. J. Verma, S. V. Rao, V. Kumar, & R. Krishnamoorthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fly ash Disposal and Utilization (pp. 40–43).Google Scholar
  48. Narayanasamy, P., & Gnanakumar, D. (1989). A lignite fly-ash: A nonpolluting substance for tackling pest problems. In K. V. Devaraj (Ed.), Progress in pollution research (pp. 201–206). University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  49. Natusch, D. F. S., & Wallace, J. R. (1974). Urban aerosol toxicity: The influence of particle size. Science, 186, 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Neelima, M. R., Khandual, S., & Tripathy, A. (1995). In Proceedings of Workshop on Fly ash Management in the State of Orissa, April 11 (pp. 76–89). Bhubhaneshwar, India: RRL.Google Scholar
  51. Pandey, V. C., Abhilash, P. C., & Singh, N. (2009). The Indian perspective of utilizing fly ash in phytoremediation, phytomanagement and biomass production. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 2943–2958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pandey, V. C., & Singh, N. (2010). Impact of fly ash incorporation in soil systems. Agriculture, Eco-systems and Environment, 136, 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pathan, S. M., Aylmore, L. A., & Colmer, T. D. (2003). Soil properties and turf growth on a sandy soil amended with fly ash. Plant and Soil, 256, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Phung, H. T., Lund, I. J., & Page, A. L. (1978). Potential use of fly ash as a liming material. In D. C. Adriano & I. L. Brisbin (Eds.), Environmental chemistry and cycling processes, Conf-760429 (pp. 504–515). Springfield, VA: US Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  55. Ramesh, V., Korwar, G. R., Mandal, U. K., Prasad, J. V. N. S., Sharma, K., Ramakrishna, S., & Kandula, V. (2008). Influence of fly ash mixtures on early tree growth and physicochemical properties of soil in semi-arid tropical alfisols. Agroforestry Systems, 73, 13–22.Google Scholar
  56. Ray, S. N. C., Ranjan, N., Kumari, K., & Sinha, R. C. (2012). Potential use of mix of fly ash and diluted distillery effluent in agriculture: A case study on the vegetative plant, Calendula officinalis. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), 2248–9622, 193–203.Google Scholar
  57. Riekerk, H. (1984). Coal–ash effects on fuelwood production and runoff water quality. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 8, 99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Robertson, G. P., Paul, E. A., & Harwood, R. R. (2000). Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: Contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science, 289(5486), 1922–1925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roy, M., Roy Chowdhury, R., & Mukherjee, P. (2018). A review on remediation of fly ash dumpsites through bioenergy crop plantation and generation. Pedosphere, 28(4), 561–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roy, W. R., Thiery, R. G., & Schuller, R. M. (1981). Coal flyash: A review of the literature and proposed classification system with emphasis on environmental impacts. Environmental Geology Notes 96. Champaign, IL: Illinois State Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  61. Sahu, S. K., Pandit, G. G., & Sadasivan, S. (2004). Precipitation scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mumbai, India. Science of the Total Environment, 318(1–3), 245–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sajwan, K. S., Paramasivam, S., Alva, A. K., Adriano, D. C., & Hooda, P. S. (2003). Assessing the feasibility of land application of fly ash, sewage sludge and their mixtures. Advances in Environmental Research, 8, 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Samaras, P., Papadimitriou, C. A., Haritou, I., & Zouboulis, A. I. (2008). Investigation of sewage sludge stabilization potential by the addition of fly ash and lime. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 1052–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sankari, S. A., & Narayanasamy, P. (2007). Bio-efficancy of fly-ash based herbal pesticides against pests of rice and vegetables. Current Science, 92, 811–816.Google Scholar
  65. Sao, S., Gothalwal, R., & Thetwarj, L. K. (2007). Effects of flyash and plant hormones treated soil on the increased protein and amino acid contents in the seeds of ground nut (Arachis hypogaea). Asian Journal of Chemistry, 19(2), 1023–1026.Google Scholar
  66. Saraswat, P. K., & Chaudhary, K. (2014). Effect of Fly Ash (FA) improving soil quality and increase the efficiency of crop productivity. European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2(6), 72–78.Google Scholar
  67. Schoeman, J. L., & van Deventer, P. W. (2004). Soils and the environment: The past 25 years. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 21(5), 369–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sett, R. (2017). Flyash: Characteristics, problems and possible utilization. Advances in Applied Science Research, 8(3), 32–50.Google Scholar
  69. Shaheen, S. M., & Tsadilas, C. D. (2010). Sorption of cadmium and lead by acidic Alfisols as influenced by fly ash and sewage sludge application. Pedosphere, 20, 436–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shende, A., Juwarkar, A. S., & Dara, S. S. (1994). Use of fly ash in reducing heavy metal toxicity in plants. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 12, 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Singh, A. L., & Asgher, M. S. (2005). Impact of brick kilns on land use/landcover changes around Aligarh city, India. Habitat International, 29(3), 91–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Singh, R. P., Gupta, A. K., Ibrahim, M. A., & Mittad, A. K. (2010). Coal fly ash utilization in agriculture: Its potential benefits and risks. Reviews in Environmental Science & Biotechnology, 9, 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh, N., & Raunaq Singh, S. B. (2013a). Reduced downward mobility of metribuzin in fly ash-amended soils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 48, 587–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singh, N., & Raunaq Singh, S. B. (2013b). Effect of fly ash amendment on persistence of metribuzin in soils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 48, 108–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Skousen, J., Yang, J. E., Lee, J., & Ziemkiewicz, P. (2013). Review of fly ash as a soil amendment. Geosystem Engineering, 16, 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Szponder, D. K., & Trybalski, K. (2009). Identification of the fly ash properties by using different methods and equipments (Okreslanie wlasciwosci popiolow lotnych przy uzyciu roznych metod i urzadzen badawczych). Geoinzynieria, 33(4), 287–298.Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, E. M., & Schumann, G. E. (1988). Flyash and lime amendment of acidic coal soil to aid revegetation. Journal of Environmental Quality, 17, 120–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thetwar, L. K., Sahu, D. P., & Vaishnava, M. M. (2006). Analysis of Sesamum indicum seed oil from plants grown in flyash amended acidic soil. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 18(1), 481–484.Google Scholar
  79. Tiwari, K. N., Sharma, D. N., Sharma, V. K., & Dingar, S. M. (1992). Evaluation of fly ash and pyrite for sodic soil rehabilitation in Uttar Pradesh, India. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 6, 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tolle, D. A., Arthur, M. F., & Pomeroy, S. E. (1982). Flyash use for agriculture and land reclamation: A critical literature review and identification of additional research needs. RP-1224-5. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; 1982. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 107, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tripathi, V., Edrisi, S. A., Chen, B., Gupta, V. K., Vilu, R., Gathergood, N., et al. (2017). Biotechnological advances for restoring degraded land for sustainable development. Trends in Biotechnology, 35(9), 847–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tripathi, S., Joshi, H. C., Sharma, D. K., & Singh, K. P. (2007). Effect of distillery effluent and flyash mixture on soil fertility, plant growth and flower yield in Gladiolus. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture, 2007–10(1), 34–37.Google Scholar
  83. Ukwattage, N. L., Ranjith, P. G., & Bouazza, M. (2013). The use of coal combustion fly ash as a soil amendment in agricultural lands (with comments on its potential to improve food security and sequester carbon). Fuel, 109, 400–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. West, T. O., & McBride, A. C. (2005). The contribution of agricultural lime to carbon dioxide emissions in the United States: Dissolution, transport, and net emissions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 108(2), 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Xu, J. Q., Yu, R.-L., Dong, X.-Y., Hu, G.-R., Shang, X.-S., Wang, Q., et al. (2012). Effects of municipal sewage sludge stabilized by fly ash on the growth of Manilagrass and transfer of heavy metals. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 217–218, 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang, H., Sun, L., & Sun, T. (2008). Solubility of ion and trace metals from stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and alkaline mine tailing. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20, 710–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ch. Srinivasa Rao
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Subha Lakshmi
    • 1
  • Vishal Tripathi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Rama Kant Dubey
    • 1
    • 4
  • Y. Sudha Rani
    • 2
  • B. Gangaiah
    • 3
  1. 1.ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research ManagementHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural UniversityBapatla Guntur DistrictIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  4. 4.Institute of Environment & Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations