Implementing the Reading to Learn Bilingual Program in Indonesia

  • Harni Kartika-NingsihEmail author
Part of the The M.A.K. Halliday Library Functional Linguistics Series book series (TMAKHLFLS)


This chapter examines the role of L1 in a literacy methodology known as the Reading to Learn bilingual program (R2L BP). The Reading to Learn methodology (R2L) was first developed in the context of Indigenous education in Australia. The R2L BP program has been extended to suit the needs of multilingual classrooms, with deliberate and systematic use of L1 in the teaching of L2. The study here discusses how Bahasa Indonesia is used in multilingual classrooms and what impact it has on students’ L2 development. R2L BP is analysed by unpacking lesson stages and analysing classroom interactions in each stage. The lesson stages are selected from the three-tier teaching/learning cycle of the R2L methodology, oriented to a high-stakes reading text. Classroom interactions are analysed in terms of learning tasks, and how they are prepared, focused, evaluated and elaborated, to show how L1 and L2 are used in each of these phases. In addition, interactions are analysed in terms of exchange structure, to examine interpersonal relations. The results indicate a promising model of embedded literacy practice in EFL settings in which L1 is used strategically.


Bilingual classroom EFL Teaching Reading Reading to Learn Indonesia 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitas IndonesiaDepokIndonesia

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