Advance Class of Antibiotics of the Twenty-First Century

  • Sadhana Sagar
  • Shilpa Kaistha
  • Amar Jyoti Das
  • Rajesh Kumar


Microbes are the dominating organism on earth; they have impacted the life of animals as well as on humans during the course of evolution. Humans have encounter with plethora of microbes in several ways. Consequently, microbes get familiarized themselves with a new host (human) and further shared their residence with the most complex and intelligent organism on earth. The desire of humans for a civilized life them on a battlefield. Herein, the complex and brainy organisms were defeated by tiny creatures many times. During this phase microbes acquired several traits which helped them in conquering the battle with humans, and adversely affacted thier life. After the incorporation of techniques, micrbial world could explored. Sophisticated instruments have revealed fine aspects of microbes and get familiarized that they as bad as good. There are sever epidemic and pandemics have been reported those threateded the humanity.  Ancient medical history is an evidence of deadly pathogens and failure of controlling strategies. However, the modern era of antibiotic brought some hope for disease-free civilized life on this planet. In this chapter, the details of twenty-first-century antibiotics have been discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadhana Sagar
    • 1
  • Shilpa Kaistha
    • 2
  • Amar Jyoti Das
    • 3
  • Rajesh Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyRani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural UniversityJhansiIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyChhatrapati Sahu Ji Maharaj UniversityKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental MicrobiologyBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

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