Use of Nanomaterials in the Pretreatment of Water Samples for Environmental Analysis

  • Sandra C. Bernardo
  • Ana C. A. Sousa
  • Márcia C. Neves
  • Mara G. FreireEmail author
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 118)


The challenge of providing clean drinking water is of enormous relevance in today’s human civilization, being essential for human consumption, but also for agriculture, livestock and several industrial applications. In addition to remediation strategies, the accurate monitoring of pollutants in water supplies, which most of the times are present at low concentrations, is a critical challenge. The usual low concentration of target analytes, the presence of interferents and the incompatibility of the sample matrix with instrumental techniques and detectors are the main reasons that render sample preparation a relevant part of environmental monitoring strategies. The discovery and application of new nanomaterials allowed improvements on the pretreatment of water samples, with benefits in terms of speed, reliability and sensitivity in analysis. In this chapter, the use of nanomaterials in solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocols for water samples pretreatment for environmental monitoring is addressed. The most used nanomaterials, including metallic nanoparticles, metal organic frameworks, molecularly imprinted polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials, silica-based nanoparticles and nanocomposites are described, and their applications and advantages overviewed. Main gaps are identified and new directions on the field are suggested.



This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, FCT Ref. UID/CTM/50011/2019, financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES. This work was financially supported by the project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-031106 (IonCytDevice) funded by FEDER, through COMPETE2020—Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (POCI), and by national funds (OE), through FCT/MCTES, and developed in the scope of the “Smart Green Homes” Project [POCI‐01‐0247‐FEDER‐007678], a co-promotion between Bosch Termotecnologia S.A. and the University of Aveiro. It is financed by Portugal 2020 under the Competitiveness an Internationalization Operational Program, and by the European Regional Development Fund. A.C.A.S. acknowledges University of Aveiro, for funding in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in the numbers 4, 5 and 6 of the article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19. M. C. N. acknowledges FCT, I.P. for the research contract CEECIND/00383/2017 under the CEEC Individual 2017.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra C. Bernardo
    • 1
  • Ana C. A. Sousa
    • 1
  • Márcia C. Neves
    • 1
  • Mara G. Freire
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentCICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of AveiroAveiroPortugal

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