Advertisement

Colonialism Within and Without: The Old Oyo Empire in West Africa

  • James Olusegun AdeyeriEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Literature on worldwide colonialism by Europeans is pervasive, unlike scholarship on the colonialism of Africans by Africans that predated the European model. This chapter tests the applicability of colonial theory by focusing on internal and external colonialism in the Old Oyo Empire (ca. 1430–1836). Though pre-modern, this state’s characteristic trajectory and hegemonic legacies in Yorubaland fit well into the colonial paradigm. Colonialism in the African context, as in the Old Oyo case, is similar to Western colonialism in many respects differing in degree, not in kind. This article argues that Old Oyo rule was indeed colonial in nature and consequences, exhibiting internal colonialism within Yorubaland and external colonialism outside Yoruba territory in relatively distant places.

References

  1. Adegbite, Adewuyi. 2011. “Osogbo War of 1840 Revisited.” Nigerian Tribune, September 6. https://waidigbenro.wordpress.com/2013/02/26/osogbo-war-of-1840-revisited/. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  2. Aderibigbe, A.B. [1965] 1976. “Peoples of Southern Nigeria.” In A Thousand Years of West African History: A Handbook for Teachers and Students, edited by Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi and Ian Espie, 193–201. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Afropedea. 2010. “Oyo Empire.” www.afropedea.org/oyo-empire. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  4. Akinjogbin, I.A. [1971] 1976. “The Expansion of Oyo and the Rise of Dahomey, 1600–1800.” In History of West Africa, vol. I, edited by Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi and Michael Crowder, 373–412. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  5. Akinjogbin, I.A. 2002. Milestones and Concepts in Yoruba History and Culture: A Key to Understanding Yoruba History. Ibadan: Olu-Akin Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Akintonde, M.A., and M.O. Areo. 2013. “Art and Craft of Old Oyo: Its Manifestation in the Present Oyo.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 15(5): 50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alimi, Shina, and A.O. Adesoji. 2011. “Oyo Empire Up Till 1893.” August 24. http://alimology.blogspot.de/2011/08/oyo-empire-up-till-1893.html. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  8. Atanda, Joseph Adebowale. 1973. “The Yoruba Ogboni Cult: Did It Exist in Old Oyo?” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 6(4): 365–72.Google Scholar
  9. Atanda, Joseph Adebowale. [1973] 1979. The New Oyo Empire: Indirect Rule and Change in Western Nigeria 1894–1934. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  10. Atanda, Joseph Adebowale. 1980. An Introduction to Yoruba History. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Awolalu, J. Ọmọṣade, and P. Adelumo Dopamu. 1979. West African Traditional Religion. Ibadan: Onibonoje Press & Book Industries.Google Scholar
  12. Ayittey, George. 2012. “The Oyo Empire.” February 19. https://seunfakze.wordpress.com/?s=The+Oyo+Empire&searchbutton=go%21. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  13. Babatunde, Samuel Olufemi. 2014. “Multilingualism Across Borders: Nigeria-Republic of Benin as Case Study.” European Scientific Journal (August) 10(10): 518–29.Google Scholar
  14. Balandier, Georges. 1951. “La Situation Coloniale: Approche Théorique.” Cahiers internationaux de sociologie XI: 44–79.Google Scholar
  15. Bascom, William R. 1962. “Some Aspects of Yoruba Urbanism.” American Anthropologist 64(4): 699–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biobaku, Saburi Oladeni. 1955. The Origin of the Yorubas. Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information Service.Google Scholar
  17. Blauner, Robert. 1969. “Internal Colonialism and Ghetto Revolt.” Social Problems 16(4): 393–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boahen, A. Adu. [1966] 1979. Topics in West African History. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  19. Boahen, A. Adu, and James Bertin Webster. [1967] 1970. History of West Africa: The Revolutionary Years—1815 to Independence. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Bohmer, Peter. 1999. “African-Americans as an Internal Colony: The Theory of Internal Colonialism.” In Readings in Black Political Economy, edited by John Whitehead and Cobie Kwasi Harris, 89–95. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  21. Brankamp, Hanno. 2015. “The Question of ‘Internal Colonialism’.” Pambazuka News, January 13. https://www.pambazuka.org/global-south/question-%E2%80%98internal-colonialism%E2%80%99. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  22. Davidson, Basil, Francis Kwamina Buah, and Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi. [1967] 1971. The Growth of African Civilisation: A History of West Africa 1000–1800. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  23. Diamond, Jared. 1994. “How Africa Became Black.” Discover, February 1. http://discovermagazine.com/1994/feb/howafricabecameb331. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  24. Douglas-Bowers, Devon. 2012. “America’s Internal Colonialism.” Global Research, July 26. https://www.globalresearch.ca/america-s-internal-colonialism/32074. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  25. Easton, Stewart Copinger. 1964. The Rise and Fall of Western Colonialism: A Historical Survey from the Early Nineteenth Century to the Present. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. 2018. “Oyo Empire: Historical Kingdom in Western Africa.” https://www.britannica.com/place/Oyo-empire. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  27. Emerson, Rupert. 2008. “Colonialism: Political Aspects.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/ancient-history-middle-ages-and-feudalism/colonialism#A. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  28. Forde, Cyril Daryll. 1951. The Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of South-Western Nigeria. London: International African Institute.Google Scholar
  29. González, Deena J. 2005. “Internal Colonialism.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, vol. 3, edited by Maryanne Cline Horowitz, 1130–31. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale.Google Scholar
  30. González-Casanova, Pablo. 1965. “Internal Colonialism and National Development.” Studies in Comparative International Development 1(4): 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kohn, Margaret, and Kavita Reddy. [2006] 2017. “Colonialism”. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/colonialism. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  32. Law, Robin, and Paul E. Lovejoy. 1999. “Borgu in the Atlantic Slave Trade.” African Economic History 27: 69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewis, Ioan Myrddin. [2004] 2013. History and Social Anthropology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Lloyd, P.C. 1960. “Sacred Kingship and Government Among the Yoruba.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 30(3): 221–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malcolm, X. 1965. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. Edited with prefatory notes by George Breitman. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  36. Master. 2009. “The Collapse of the Old Oyo Empire.” October 27. http://investingnow-babs.blogspot.com/2009/10/colapsed-of-old-oyo-empire.html. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  37. Matory, J. Lorand. 1994. Sex and the Empire That Is No More: Gender and the Politics of Metaphor in Oyo Yoruba Religion. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  38. McCaskie, T.C., and John, D. Fage. 2018. “Western Africa.” https://www.britannica.com/place/western-Africa/The-beginnings-of-European-activity. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  39. New World Encyclopedia. 2016. “Oyo Empire.” October 4. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Oyo_Empire. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  40. Ojo, Adekunle. 1970. A Textbook of West African History. Ibadan: Educational Research Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Okauru, Ifueko Omoigui. 2012. A Comprehensive Tax History of Nigeria. Ibadan: Safari Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  42. Oladipo, Olayinka. 2011. “Sango: The God of Thunder.” TIA, April 17. http://tia-thisisafrica.blogspot.de/2011/04/sango-god-of-thunder_17.html. Accessed October 16, 2018.
  43. Onwubiko, K.B.C. 1973. History of West Africa, 1800—Present Day (Book Two). Onitsha: Africana FEP Publishers Limited.Google Scholar
  44. Osae, Theodore Adjei, and Samuel Nwankwo Nwabara. [1968] 1980. A Short History of West Africa, A.D. 1000–1800. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  45. Pinderhughes, Charles. 2009. “21st Century Chains: The Continuing Relevance of Internal Colonialism Theory.” PhD diss., Boston College. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/3409. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  46. Pinderhughes, Charles. 2011. “Toward a New Theory of Internal Colonialism.” Socialism and Democracy 25(1): 235–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Settles, Joshua Dwayne. 1996. “The Impact of Colonialism on African Economic Development.” May 1996. https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_chanhonoproj/182. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  48. Sharma, Pratik. 2018. “Colonialism: Meaning and Features; Indian Economic History.” http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/economic-history/colonialism-meaning-and-features-indian-economic-history/5967. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  49. Simons, Harold Jack, and Ray E. Simons. 1969. Class and Colour in South Africa, 1850–1950. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  50. Smith, Robert S. 1969. Kingdoms of the Yoruba. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  51. Smitha, Frank E. 2015. “The Kingdoms of Oyo, Dahomey and Asante.” http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h28af3–4.htm. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  52. Soyoye, Akinyode. 2014. “Governance in the Old Oyo Empire.” Feathersproject, September 4. https://feathersproject.wordpress.com/2014/09/04/guest-blog-post-akinyode-soyoye-governance-in-the-old-oyo-empire. Accessed October 15, 2018.
  53. Stride, G.T., and Ifeka, Caroline. 1971. Peoples and Empires of West Africa: West Africa in History, 1000–1800. Lagos: Thomas Nelson.Google Scholar
  54. Subreenduth, Sharon. 2018. “Colonization Theory.” In Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies, edited by Craig Kridel. http://sk.sagepub.com/reference/curriculumstudies/n68.xml. Accessed October 16, 2018.
  55. Tomori, M.A. 2018. “Ibadan Metropolitan Area and the Challenges to Sustainable Development.” In MACOS Urban Management Consultancy Services. https://www.macosconsultancy.com/Ibadan%20metropolitan.html. Accessed November 22, 2018.
  56. Udenyi, David. 2018. “Critically Discuss How the Collapse of Oyo Empire Affected the Political Equilibrium of Yoroba Land and Dahomey.” http://www.academia.edu/22410575/CRITICALLY_DISCUSS_HOW_THE_COLLAPSE_OF_OYO_EMPIRE_AFFECTED_THE_POLITICAL_EQUILIBRIUM_OF_YOROBA_LAND_AND_DAHOMEY. Accessed October 16, 2018.
  57. UKEssays. 2013. “The Theories of Colonialism History Essay.” https://www.ukessays.com/essays/history/the-theories-of-colonialism-history-essay.php?vref=1. Accessed October 16, 2018.
  58. Willet, Frank. 1965. The Sculpture of Western Nigeria. Ibadan: Ministry of Information.Google Scholar
  59. Wolfe, Patrick. 1997. “History and Imperialism: A Century of Theory, from Marx to Postcolonialism.” The American Historical Review 102(2): 388–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wolpe, Harold. [1975] 2013. “The Theory of Internal Colonialism: The South African Case.” In Beyond the Sociology of Development: Economy and Society in Latin America and Africa, edited by Ivar Oxaal, Tony Barnett, and David Booth, 229–52. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of History and International StudiesLagos State UniversityLagosNigeria

Personalised recommendations