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Endangered Species, Fragile Ecosystems, and the Obligation to Protect and Preserve the Marine Environment

  • Alfredo C. Robles Jr.
Chapter

Abstract

The Tribunal, agreeing with the Philippines, interpreted Article 192 in such a way as to encompass the protection and preservation of endangered species and fragile ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. In examining Philippine Submissions No. 11 and 12(b), the Tribunal drew on other provisions of Part XII, notably Article 194(5), and on the CBD and CITES. It concluded that China had failed to comply with its due diligence obligation to prevent the harvesting of endangered species, but not that China had failed to prevent dynamite and cyanide fishing. The Tribunal, after examining the reports of independent experts, concluded that China’s construction activities in the Spratly Islands caused devastating and irreversible damage to the marine environment and that China had breached Article 192. China had also breached the obligation to cooperate with other States bordering the South China Sea under Articles 197 and 123 by ignoring their protests at China’s construction activities. The Tribunal, unable to ascertain whether China had carried out an EIA, under Article 206, concluded that China had breached Article 205 by failing to communicate the results of any such assessment.

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  86. ———. Annex 117. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Liu Weimin’s Regular Press Conference on April 12, 2012 (12 April 2012). Vol. V, 109–14, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20V%20%28Annexes%20103-157%29.pdf, accessed 16 April 2019.
  87. ———. Annex 144. Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in South China Sea (4 November 2002). Vol. V, 321–25, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20V%20%28Annexes%20103-157%29.pdf, accessed 16 April 2019.
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  96. ———. Annex 866. China State Oceanic Administration. Code of Practice for Marine Monitoring Technology, Part 5: Marine Ecology, Marine Industry Standards of the People’s Republic of China, No. HY/T 147.5-2013 (25 April 2013), 22–24, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Written%20Responses%20%2811%20March%202016%29%20%28Annexes%20864-892%29.pdf, accessed 19 April 2019.
  97. ———. Annex 867. China State Oceanic Administration, “2013 Communique on Marine Environment of China, Part 2: Conditions of Marine Ecology” (25 March 2014), 25–36, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Written%20Responses%20%2811%20March%202016%29%20%28Annexes%20864-892%29.pdf, accessed 19 April 2019.
  98. ———. Annex 868. China State Oceanic Administration. Technical Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of Marine Engineering, National Standards of the People’s Republic of China, No. GB/T 19485 -2014 (1 April 2014), 37–128, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Written%20Responses%20%2811%20March%202016%29%20%28Annexes%20864-892%29.pdf, accessed 19 April 2019.
  99. ———. Annex 869. China State Oceanic Administration, South China Sea Branch, “Communique on the Oceanic Conditions of the South China Seas Region in 2013” (14 August 2014), 129–54, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Written%20Responses%20%2811%20March%202016%29%20%28Annexes%20864-892%29.pdf, accessed 19 April 2019.
  100. ———. Annex 870. China State Oceanic Administration, “2014 Communique on Marine Environment of China, Part 2: Conditions of Marine Ecology” (16 March 2015), https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Written%20Responses%20%2811%20March%202016%29%20%28Annexes%20864-892%29.pdf, accessed 19 April 2019.
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  107. ———. Annex 624. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying’s Regular Press Conference (9 April 2015). Vol. I, 165–69, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20I%20%28Annexes%20607-667%29.pdf, accessed 9 April 2019.
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  112. ———. Annex 672. Note Verbale from the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines to the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila, No. 14-2093 (6 June 2014). Vol. II, 17–20, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
  113. ———. Annex 673. Note Verbale from the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines to the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila, No. 14-2276 (23 June 2014). Vol. II, 21–24, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
  114. ———. Annex 675. Note Verbale from the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila to the Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, No. 14 (PG)-195 (30 June 2014). Vol. II, 29–32, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
  115. ———. Annex 676. Note Verbale from the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila to the Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, No. 14 (PG)-197 (4 July 2014). Vol. II, 35–39, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
  116. ———. Annex 678. Note Verbale from the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila to the Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, No. 14 (PG)-264 (2 September 2014). Vol. II, 45–50, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
  117. ———. Annex 680. Note Verbale from the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila to the Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, No. 14 (PG)-336 (28 October 2014). Vol. II, 55–59, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
  118. ———. Annex 681. Note Verbale from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China to the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Beijing, No. (2015) Bu Bian Zi No. 5 (20 January 2015). Vol. II, 61–66, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20II%20%28Annexes%20608-709%29.pdf, accessed 7 April 2019.
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfredo C. Robles Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.De La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

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