Advertisement

The Protection and Preservation of Endangered Species and Fragile Ecosystems and the Jurisdiction of the Arbitral Tribunal

  • Alfredo C. Robles Jr.
Chapter

Abstract

Despite China’s silence, the Tribunal examined two jurisdictional issues: whether preconditions to compulsory dispute settlement had been fulfilled and whether automatic limitations and optional military activities and law enforcement activities exceptions to jurisdiction applied. The preconditions refer to the absence of other agreements between the Philippines and China to settle disputes relating to the Convention and to the exchange of views regarding the settlement of the dispute. The Tribunal concluded that both preconditions had been fulfilled. The CBD was not an agreement to resolve disputes relating to the interpretation and application of the Convention, nor did it involve compulsory dispute settlement entailing binding decisions. The diplomatic documents submitted by the Philippines proved that exchanges of views had taken place. The Tribunal found that the automatic limitation referring to the coastal State’s sovereign rights in the EEZ did not in fact constitute a limitation; that the military activities exception was not applicable, given China’s declarations that its construction activities were for civilian purposes only; and that the law enforcement exceptions only referred to certain disputes over marine scientific research.

References

  1. Chagos Marine Protected Area Arbitration (Mauritius v. United Kingdom), Award of 18 March 2015, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/MU-UK%2020150318%20Award.pdf, accessed 5 April 2019.
  2. Convention for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna, done at Canberra on 10 May 1993, entered into force on 20 May 1994, https://www.ccsbt.org/sites/ccsbt.org/files/userfiles/file/docs_english/basic_documents/convention.pdf, accessed 12 May 2019.
  3. Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, done at The Hague on 18 October 1907, https://pca-cpa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2016/01/1907-Convention-for-the-Pacific-Settlement-of-International-Disputes.pdf, accessed 4 April 2019.
  4. Convention on Biological Diversity, signed at Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992, entered into force on 29 December 1993, https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  5. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, signed at Washington, DC., on 3 March 1973, amended at Bonn, on 22 June 1979, amended at Gaborone, on 30 April 1983, https://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.php, accessed 26 March 2019.
  6. Dörr, Oliver. “Article 31. General Rule of Interpretation.” Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: A Commentary, 2nd ed., 559–616. Eds. Oliver Dörr and Kirsten Schmalenbach. Berlin: Springer Verlag GmbH Germany, 2018.Google Scholar
  7. International Court of Justice. Statute of the International Court of Justice, https://www.icj-cij.org/en/statute, accessed 5 May 2019.
  8. Linderfalk, Ulf. On the Interpretation of Treaties: The Modern International Law as Expressed in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007.Google Scholar
  9. Maresca, Adolfo. Il diritto dei trattati. La Convenzione codificatrice di Viena del 23 maggio 1969 [The Law of Treaties. The Codifying Convention of Vienna, 23 May 1969]. Milano: Dott. A. Giuffrè Editore, 1971.Google Scholar
  10. MOX Plant (Ireland v. United Kingdom), Provisional Measures, Order of 3 December 2001, Separate Opinion of Judge Wolfrum, ITLOS Reports 2001, 131, https://www.itlos.org/fileadmin/itlos/documents/cases/case_no_10/published/C10-O-3_dec_01-SO_W.pdf, accessed 5 April 2019.
  11. Nordquist, Myron H. et al. (eds.). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 Commentary. Vol. V. Settlement of Disputes, General and Final Provisions and Related Annexes and Resolutions. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989.Google Scholar
  12. Oral, Nilufer. “The South China Sea Arbitral Award, Part XII of UNCLOS, and the Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment.” The South China Sea Arbitration: The Legal Dimension, 223–46. Eds. S. Jayakumar et al. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2018.Google Scholar
  13. Shihata, Ibrahim F. I. The Power of the International Court to Determine Its Own Jurisdiction: Compétence de la Compétence. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, 1965.Google Scholar
  14. South China Sea Arbitration. Annexes Cited During Hearing on Jurisdiction (13 July 2015). Annex 579. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang’s Remarks on Issues Relating to China’s Construction Activities on the Nansha Islands and Reefs (16 June 2015), 159, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/Annexes%20cited%20during%20Hearing%20on%20Jurisdiction%20%28Annexes%20574–583%29.pdf, accessed 9 April 2019.
  15. ———. Award of 12 July 2016, https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/2086, accessed 26 March 2019.
  16. ———. Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 29 October 2015, https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1506, accessed 26 March 2019.
  17. ———. Hearing on Jurisdiction and Admissibility. Transcript, Day 2 (8 July 2015), https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1400, accessed 3 April 2019.
  18. ———. Transcript, Day 3 (13 July 2015), https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1401, accessed 5 April 2019.
  19. ———. Hearing on the Merits and the Remaining Issues of Admissibility. Transcript, Day 4 (30 November 2015), https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1550, accessed 5 April 2019.
  20. ———. Memorial of the Philippines (30 March 2014). Vol. I, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/Memorial%20of%20the%20Philippines%20Volume%20I.pdf, accessed 27 March 2019.
  21. ———. Annex 18. Memorandum from the Ambassador of the Republic of the Philippines in Beijing to the Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines (10 March 1995). Vol. III, 209–11, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  22. ———. Annex 19. Memorandum from Erlinda F. Basilio, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines (29 March 1995). Vol. III, 213–17, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  23. ———. Annex 20. Memorandum from Lauro L. Baja Jr., Assistant Secretary, Office of Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines, to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines (7 April 1995). Vol. III, 219–24, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  24. ———. Annex 21. Memorandum from the Ambassador of the Republic of the Philippines in Beijing to the Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines (10 April 1995). Vol. III, 219–24, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  25. ———. Annex 22. Memorandum from the Ambassador of the Republic of the Philippines in Beijing to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines, No. ZPE-231-95 (20 April 1995). Vol. III, 233–35, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  26. ———. Annex 33. Memorandum from Ambassador of the Republic of Philippines in Beijing to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines, No. ZPE-76-98-S (6 November 1998). Vol. III, 295–300, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  27. ———. Annex 23. Memorandum from the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines to the President of the Republic of the Philippines (31 July 1995). Vol. III, 237–42, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  28. ———. Annex 37. Memorandum from the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Beijing to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines, No. ZPE-85-98-S (4 December 1998). Vol. III, 315–19, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  29. ———. Annex 43. Memorandum from the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Beijing to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines, No. ZPE-06-2001-S (13 February 2001). Vol. III, 351–55, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  30. ———. Annex 45. Memorandum from Willy C. Gaa, Assistant Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines to Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines (14 February 2001). Vol. III, 363–67, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20III%20%28Annexes%201-60%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  31. ———. Annex 180. Government of the Republic of the Philippines and Government of the People’s Republic of China. Agreed Minutes on the First Philippines-China Bilateral Consultations on the South China Sea Issue (10 August 1995). Vol. VI, 187–91, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20VI%20%28Annexes%20158-221%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  32. ———. Annex 181. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Transcript of Proceedings Republic of the Philippines-People’s Republic of China Bilateral Talks (10 August 1995). Vol. VI, 193–217, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20VI%20%28Annexes%20158-221%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  33. ———. Annex 186. Note Verbale from the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines to the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila, No. 2000100 (14 January 2000). Vol. VI, 259–61, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20VI%20%28Annexes%20158-221%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  34. ———. Annex 205. Note Verbale from the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines to the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Manila, No. 12-0894 (11 April 2012). Vol. VI, 377–80, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Memorial%20-%20Volume%20VI%20%28Annexes%20158-221%29.pdf, accessed 26 March 2019.
  35. ———. Notification and Statement of Claim, 22 January 2013, https://seasresearch.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/notification-and-statement-of-claim-on-west-philippine-sea.pdf, accessed 5 April 2019.
  36. ———. Procedural Order No. 4, Doc. PCA 1435452 (1 April 2015), https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1807, accessed 5 April 2019.
  37. ———. Supplemental Documents of the Philippines (19 November 2015). Annex 619. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying’s Regular Press Conference (9 September 2014). Vol. I, 137–42, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20I%20%28Annexes%20607-667%29.pdf, accessed 9 April 2019.
  38. ———. Annex 624. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying’s Regular Press Conference (9 April 2015). Vol. I, 165–70, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Documents%20-%20Volume%20I%20%28Annexes%20607-667%29.pdf, accessed 9 April 2019.
  39. ———. Supplemental Written Submission of the Philippines (16 March 2015). Vol. I, http://www.pcacases.com/pcadocs/Supplemental%20Written%20Submission%20Volume%20I.pdf, accessed 5 April 2019.
  40. ———. Annex 467. People’s Republic of China, Position Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Matter of Jurisdiction in the South China Sea Arbitration Initiated by the Republic of the Philippines (7 December 2014). Vol. VIII, 19–33, https://files.pca-cpa.org/pcadocs/The%20Philippines%27%20Supplemental%20Written%20Submission%20-%20Volume%20VIII%20%28Annexes%20466-499%29.pdf, accessed 4 April 2019.
  41. Stephens, Tim. “The Collateral Damage from China’s ‘Great Wall of Sand’: The Environmental Dimensions of the South China Sea Case.” Australian Yearbook of International Law 24 (2017): 41–56.Google Scholar
  42. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Concluded at Montego Bay on 10 December, entered into force on 16 November 1994, http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm, accessed 21 March 2019.
  43. United Nations Office of Legal Affairs. Codification Division. United Nations Diplomatic Conferences. Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1973–1982, 2019, http://legal.un.org/diplomaticconferences/1973_los/, accessed 4 April 2019.
  44. United Nations Office of Legal Affairs. Treaty Section. Treaty Collection. Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General, Chapter XXI: Law of the Sea, https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetailsIII.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXI-6&chapter=21&Temp=mtdsg3&clang=_en, accessed 4 April 2019.
  45. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, done at Vienna on 23 May 1969, entered into force on 27 January 1980, http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf, accessed 9 April 2019.
  46. Villiger, Mark E. Commentary on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009.Google Scholar
  47. Yasseen, Mustafa Kamal. “L’interprétation des traités d’après la Convention de Vienne sur le droit des traités [Treaty Interpretation According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties].” Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de Droit International de La Haye [Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law]. Vol. 151 (1976-III): 1–114.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfredo C. Robles Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.De La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations