China’s Inchoate Hegemony: Small Powers’ Struggle for Autonomy

  • Richard Javad Heydarian


The chapter looks at the role of smaller powers, especially in Southeast Asia, in shaping the emerging security architecture in the Indo-Pacific. Instead of being pawns of superpowers, many regional states are proactively balancing their relations with external partners and dynamically protecting their cherished strategic autonomy. It looks at how key figures such as Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte and Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad are pursuing various forms of equilateral balancing strategy in order to protect their national interests and autonomy amid the brewing Cold War between the United States and China. It also looks at the strategies of Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia, as well as the growing footprint of a resurgent Russia in the Indo-Pacific. The chapter questions the validity of the myth of Chinese hegemonic inevitability in Southeast Asia.


Rodrigo Duterte Mahathir Mohamad Small powers 


  1. Abe, Shinzo. “Asia’s Democratic Security Diamond.” Project Syndicate. December 27, 2012.
  2. Agence France-Presse. “South China Sea: Duterte Warns Beijing of ‘Suicide Missions’ to Protect Disputed Island.” The Guardian. April 5, 2019a.
  3. Agence France-Presse. “With Kim-Putin Summit, Moscow Eyes Role in N. Korea.” Rappler. April 19, 2019b.
  4. Aloc, Daniel. “Can Duterte Do a Hugo Chavez.” Inquirer. June 6, 2016.
  5. “An Expose of How States Manipulate Other Countries’ Citizens.” The Straits Times. July 1, 2018.
  6. Anderlini, Jamil. “Former Malaysian PM Mahatir Mohamad on the Rise of China.” Financial Times. May 26, 2017.
  7. Anderson, Benedict. “First Filipino.” London Review of Books 19, no. 20 (1997): 22–23.
  8. Anderson, Benedict. “Old Corruption.” London Review of Books 9, no. 3 (1987): 3–6.
  9. Angaindrankumar, Gnanasagaran. “Chinese Labour Migration to Southeast Asia.” The ASEAN Post. December 14, 2018.
  10. Associated Press. “Mahathir Bucks Warships Stationed in South China Sea.” Inquirer. August 14, 2018.
  11. Batongbacal, Jay. “EDCA and the West Philippine Sea.” Rappler. Last date modified August 9, 2017.
  12. Bhavan, Jaipragas. “Forget the Warships: Malaysian PM Mahatir’s Peace Formula for South China Sea.” South China Morning Post. June 19, 2018.
  13. Beech, Hannah. “‘We Cannot Afford This’: Malaysia Pushes Back Against China’s Vision.” The New York Times. August 20, 2018.
  14. Beech, Hannah, and Muktita Suhartono. “A ‘Little Bit of a Nutcase’ Who’s Taking on China.” The New York Times. June 8, 2018.
  15. Buan, Lian. “Carpio Warns Against Similar Waivers to China in Kaliwa Dam Project.” Rappler. March 29, 2019.
  16. Cabacungan, Gil. “Most Powerful PH Leader Since Marcos.” Inquirer. June 9, 2016.
  17. Calonzo, Andreo, and David Tweed. “Philippines’ Duterte Open to Joint Naval Drills with Russia.” Bloomberg. January 5, 2017.
  18. “Chart of the Day: Singapore 2019 Defence Spending Hits 12-Year High.” Singapore Business Review. February 19, 2019.
  19. Chellaney, Brahma. “China’s Debt-Trap Diplomacy.” Project Syndicate. January 23, 2017.
  20. “China Took What Is ‘Ours’, Foreign Affairs Chief Says of West PH Sea.” ABS-CBN News. April 10, 2019.
  21. Cigaral, Ian. “Philippine Shares Buck Regional Downswing as Xi Jinping Visit Takes Center Stage.” Philstar Global. November 20, 2018.
  22. Cochrane, Joe. “Indonesia, Long on Sidelines, Starts to Confront China’s Territorial Claims.” The New York Times. September 10, 2017.
  23. Colcol, Erwin. “Chinese Vessels Spotted Near Kota, Panata Islands—Int’l Think Tank.” GMA News. April 17, 2019.
  24. “Commentary: Historic Opportunity to Bolster China-Philippines Ties.” Xinhua. November 20, 2018.
  25. Cordero, John Ted. “Duterte to US Aid Agency: Eat Your Money!” GMA News. December 17, 2016.
  26. Corr, Anders. “Chinese Bomber Buzzes Philippines’ Scarborough Shoal in Latest Salvo of U.S.-China Signalling War.” Forbes. July 17, 2016.
  27. Corrales, Nestor. “China Backs PH Pull Out from ICC, Urges Nations to Support ‘War on Drugs’.” Inquirer. March 30, 2018.
  28. Corrales, Nestor. “Duterte Says He’ll ‘Set Aside’ Arbitral Ruling on South China Sea.” Inquirer. December 17, 2016.
  29. Dancel, Raul. “Malaysian PM, on Official Visit to the Philippines, Says Manila Should Regulate or Limit Beijing Influences.” The Straits Times. March 8, 2019.
  30. David, Randy. “Dutertismo.” Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 1, 2016.Google Scholar
  31. Davies, Ed, and David Lawder. “‘Winter Is Coming’: Indonesia Warns World Finance Leaders Over Trade War.” Reuters. October 12, 2018.
  32. De Luce, Dan, and Keith Johnson. “U.S. Likely to Lift Ban on Arms Sales to Vietnam.” Foreign Policy. May 9, 2016.
  33. Delizo, Michael Joe. “PH, Russia Break Ice on Military Cooperation.” The Manila Times. September 21, 2016.
  34. “Duterte Enjoys Record-High 91% Trust Rating—Pulse Asia.” Rappler. July 20, 2016.
  35. “Duterte: ‘I’ve Seen America and It’s Lousy’.” 2017.
  36. “Duterte to US: Are You With Us?” Philstar Global. May 16, 2016.
  37. “Duterte Visits Russian Warship.” ABS-CBN News. January 6, 2017.
  38. Esmaquel II, Paterno. “China Chopper Harasses PH Rubber Boat in Ayungin Shoal—Lawmaker.” Rappler. May 30, 2018a.
  39. Esmaquel II, Paterno. “Duterte: ‘Remain Meek’, to Get ‘Mercy’ of China’s Xi.” Rappler. May 16, 2018b.
  40. Esmaquel II, Paterno. “‘Forces’ in Gov’t Pushed for PH-China Oil Deal—Locsin.” Rappler. November 22, 2018c.
  41. Esmaquel II, Paterno. “Wang Yi: Duterte ‘the Most Respected Friend’ of Xi Jinping.” Rappler. October 29, 2018d.
  42. Esmaquel II, Paterno. “Ex-PH Officials: ICC Complaint vs China ‘to Check Impunity’.” Rappler. March 22, 2019.
  43. “EXCLUSIVE: MOU for Talks on Joint Oil Exploration ‘Without Prejudice’ to PH, China Legal Positions.” CNN Philippines. November 23, 2018.
  44. “F-16 Jet Fighter Skids Off Runway in Pekanbaru.” The Jakarta Post. March 14, 2017.
  45. Fallows, James. “A Damaged Culture.” The Atlantic. November 1987.
  46. Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. Westminister: Penguin Books, 2005.Google Scholar
  47. Fernholz, Tim. “China’s ‘Debt Trap’ Is Even Worse Than We Thought.” Quartz. June 29, 2018.
  48. FlorCruz, Michelle. “Territorial Dispute: Chinese South China Sea Occupation Is a ‘Real Threat’.” International Business Time. September 22, 2014.
  49. Francisco, Rosemarie, and Matt Spetalnik. “Philippines, U.S. to Sign New Military Pact, Part of U.S. Pivot.” Reuters. April 27, 2014.
  50. Gady, Franz-Stefan. “Vietnam Deploys Precision-Guided Rocket Artillery in South China Sea.” The Diplomat. August 10, 2016.
  51. Gamil, Jaymee. “AFP Vows to Defend Country Amid China Buildup on PH Reefs.” Inquirer. May 19, 2018.
  52. Gan, Nectar, and Laura Zhou. “Lee Kuan Yew Among Foreigners Honoured for Helping China to Open Up.” South China Morning Post. December 18, 2018.
  53. Garnaut, John. “How China Interferes in Australia.” Foreign Affairs. March 9, 2018.
  54. Gatra, Priyandita. “Belt and Road Investment Under Fire in Indonesia’s Presidential Elections.” East Asia Forum. November 20, 2018.
  55. GMA News. “REPLAY: FYI with Richard Heydarian: Interview with Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Bin Mohamad.” Youtube Video, 32:31. March 8, 2019.
  56. Gita, Ruth Abbey. “275 Chinese Vessels Sail Near Pag-asa; PH Files Diplomatic Protest.” Sunstar. April 1, 2019.
  57. Gonzales, Yuji Vincent. “Clinton? Trump? Duterte Says Putin ‘My Favorite Hero’.” Inquirer. October 23, 2016.
  58. Grevatt, Jon, and Craig Caffrey. “Indonesia Increases Defence Budget 14%.” Jane’s 360. August 18, 2014.
  59. Harshaw, Tobin. “Emperor Xi’s China Is Done Biding Its Time.” Belfer Center. March 3, 2018.
  60. Head, Jonathan. “US Aircraft Carrier Carl Vinson in Historic Vietnam Visit.” BBC. March 5, 2018.
  61. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “A Philippine Alternative to China’s Takeover of Subic Shipyard.” Nikkei Asian Review. February 20, 2019a.
  62. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Chinese Migrants Spark a Backlash in the Philippines.” Asia Times. February 26, 2019b.
  63. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Is China Our ‘Friend’?” Inquirer. April 9, 2019c.
  64. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Evolving Philippines‐U.S.‐China Strategic Triangle: International and Domestic Drivers.” Asian Politics & Policy 9, no. 4 (2017a). Scholar
  65. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Philippines’ Forgotten Revolution: General Luna and the Quest for Independence.” Huffington Post. Last date modified December 6, 2017b.
  66. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Crossing the Rubicon: Duterte, China and Resource-Sharing in the South China Sea.” October 23, 2018a.
  67. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Duterte and the Philippines’ Contested Foreign Policy.” Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative. August 20, 2018b.
  68. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Duterte’s Efforts to Align the Philippines with China Face a Backlash.” World Politics Review. July 19, 2018c.
  69. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Manila Quietly Pivots Back to the United States.” Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative. November 9, 2018d.
  70. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “The Perils of a Philippine-China Joint Development Agreement in South China Sea.” Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative. April 27, 2018e.
  71. Heydarian, Richard Javad. The Rise of Duterte: A Populist Revolt Against Elite Democracy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018f.Google Scholar
  72. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “The Sino-American Cold War Is in Full Swing.” China-US Focus. October 3, 2018g.
  73. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Under Duterte, Philippines Enjoying an Investment Boom, but Don’t Thank China.” Forbes. March 25, 2018h.
  74. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Hide Your Strength, Bide Your Time.” Aljazeera. November 21, 2014.
  75. Heydarian, Richard Javad. “Thrilla in Manila.” Foreign Affairs. September 27, 2016.
  76. Hill, Fiona, and Bobo Lo. “Putin’s Pivot.” Foreign Affairs. July 31, 2013.
  77. Ibrahim, Zuraidah. “What Singapore Is Saying by Expelling China Hand Huang Jing.” South China Morning Post. August 12, 2017.
  78. Ide, Bill. “Duterte Announces Philippine ‘Separation’ from US.” VOA. October 20, 2016.
  79. “Important Speech of Xi Jinping at Peripheral Diplomacy Work Conference.” China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development. October 30, 2013.
  80. “Indonesia Military Expenditure.” Trading Economics. Last date accessed April 10, 2019.
  81. “Is Russia’s APEC Summit A $21 Billion Waste?” International Business Times. September 5, 2012.
  82. Jaipragas, Bhavan. “Hong Kong to Return Seized Armoured Vehicles to Singapore.” South China Morning Post. January 24, 2017.
  83. Jensen, Fergus. “Indonesia Pushes for Southeast Asian Patrols of Disputed Waters.” Reuters. March 16, 2018.
  84. Kang, Daniel. American Grand Strategy and East Asian Security in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines, reissue edition. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.Google Scholar
  86. Kasuya, Yuko. Presidential Bandwagon: Parties and Party Systems in the Philippines. Mandaluyong: Anvil Publishing, 2009.Google Scholar
  87. Kendall-Taylor, Andrea, Erica Frantz, and Joseph Wright. “The New Dictators.” Foreign Affairs. September 26, 2016.
  88. Koh, Tommy. “A World Statesman.” The Straits Times. December 27, 1990.
  89. Koh, Tommy. “China’s Perception of Singapore: 4 Areas of Misunderstanding.” The Straits Times. October 21, 2016.
  90. Koren, Marina. “The Philippine President’s Vulgar Warning to Obama.” The Atlantic. September 5, 2016.
  91. Koutsoukis, Jason, and Cecilia Yap. “China Hasn’t Delivered on Its $24 Billion Philippines Promise.” Bloomberg. July 26, 2018.
  92. Kuo, Lily. “Cracks Appear in ‘Invincible’ Xi Jinping’s Authority Over China.” The Guardian. August 4, 2018.
  93. Laksmana, Evan. “An Indo-Pacific Construct with ‘Indonesian Characteristics’.” Australian Strategic Policy Institute. February 6, 2018.
  94. Laksmana, Evan. “Pragmatic Equidistance: How Indonesia Manages Its Great Power Relations.” In David Denoon (ed.), China, the United States, and the Future of Southeast Asia, pp. 113–135. New York: New York University Press, 2017.Google Scholar
  95. Legaspi, Amita. “De Lima on Duterte’s Claim That China Is PHL ‘Protector’: Hilarious.” GMA News. May 8, 2018.
  96. Lema, Karen. “Russia Says It’s Ready to Offer Sophisticated Weapons and Be a ‘Close Friend’ to the Philippines.” Business Insider. January 4, 2017.
  97. Lema, Karen, and Martin Petty. “Two Years After Philippines’ Pivot, Duterte Still Waiting on China Dividend.” Reuters. November 19, 2018.
  98. Lendon, Brad, and Katie Hunt. “China, Russia Begin Joint Exercises in South China Sea.” CNN. September 13, 2016.
  99. Lendon, Brad, and Kelly Murray. “APEC Summit Wraps with No Joint Statement Amid US-China Discord.” CNN. November 19, 2018.
  100. Leonen, Julius. “De Lima Says Duterte Has Become a ‘Chinese Governor’.” Inquirer. January 17, 2018.
  101. Lim, Frinston, and Allan Nawal. “Duterte to Cops: Kill Criminals if You Have to, I’ll Protect You.” Inquirer. January 18, 2018.
  102. Luttwak, Edward. The Rise of China vs. the Logic of Strategy. New York: Belknap Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  103. Luttwak, Edward, and Brad Carson. “Jaw-Jaw: China’s Great Power Disease.” War on the Rocks. February 19, 2019.
  104. Macas, Tricia. “Duterte Reveals Being Denied a US Visa in the Past.” GMA News. October 20, 2016.
  105. Madan, Tanvi. “The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of the ‘Quad’.” War on the Rocks. November 16, 2017.
  106. “Mahathir Warns Against New ‘Colonialism’ During Visit to China.” Bloomberg News. August 20, 2018.
  107. Mangosing, Frances. “Chinese Sea Militia Swarms Around Pag-asa Island—Military.” Inquirer. March 30, 2019.
  108. Mateo, Janvic. “Chinese Military Aircraft Lands in Davao City?” Philstar Global. June 10, 2018.
  109. Mayberry, Kate. “China Signals Belt and Road Shift with Malaysia Rail Project.” Aljazeera. April 15, 2019.
  110. Medcalf, Rory. “The Indo-Pacific: What’s in a Name?” The American Interest. October 10, 2013.
  111. Mendez, Christina. “Duterte: I Love Xi Jinping.” April 10, 2018.
  112. Mendez, Christina, Jaime Laude, and Helen Flores. “AFP Urges Gov’t: Raise Chinese Incursions in WPS.” Philstar Global. August 18, 2017.
  113. Merez, Arianne. “Palace: Chinese Presence in West PH Sea an ‘Assault’ to PH Sovereignty.” ABS-CBN News. April 10, 2019.
  114. Minh, Nguyen. “U.S. Carrier Arrives in Vietnam Amid Rising Chinese Influence in Region.” Reuters. March 5, 2018.
  115. Moss, Trefor. “Behind Duterte’s Break with the U.S., a Lifetime of Resentment.” Wallstreet Journal. October 21, 2016.
  116. Murphy, Katharine. “America to Partner with Australia to Develop Naval Base on Manus Island.” The Guardian. November 17, 2018.
  117. Naim, Moises. The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be, reprint edition. New York: Basic Books, 2014.Google Scholar
  118. Ng, Fintan. “The Economic Ties That Bind Us.” The Star Online. May 26, 2014.
  119. “No ‘One-on-One’ Discussion with Beijing on South China Sea Issue: Malaysia Foreign Minister.” Channel News Asia. April 24, 2019.
  120. Office of the Spokesperson. “Advancing a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Region.” U.S. Department of State. November 18, 2018.
  121. Oh, Yoon Ah. “China’s Economic Ties with Southeast Asia.” World Economy Brief 7, no. 18 (2017).
  122. Otto, Ben. “The Russians Are Coming…to Southeast Asia.” The Wall Street Journal. July 6, 2016.
  123. Paddock, Richard. “Mysterious Blast in Philippines Fuels Rodrigo Duterte’s ‘Hatred’ of U.S.” New York Times. May 14, 2016.
  124. Panda, Ankit. “US, Indonesian Navies Conduct Air Patrol Exercise in South China Sea.” The Diplomat. April 11, 2015.
  125. Parameswaran, Prashanth. “What’s in Singapore’s New Anti-Fake News Bill?” The Diplomat. April 4, 2019.
  126. Parlina, Ina. “Jokowi Pledges Ambitious Arms Spending.” The Jakarta Post. February 24, 2016.
  127. Parrocha, Azer. “Palace Open to Bring Arbitration Win vs. China to UN.” Philippine News Agency. April 2, 2019.
  128. Pence, Mike. “Mike Pence: The United States Seeks Collaboration, Not Control, in the Indo-Pacific.” The Washington Post. November 9, 2018.
  129. Permanent Court of Arbitration. In the Matter of the South China Sea Arbitration. PCA Case No 2013-19. The Hague, Netherlands. July 12, 2016.
  130. Petaling, Jaya. “Let Malaysia Continue Occupying Islands in South China Sea: PM Mahathir.” The Straits Times. June 20, 2018.
  131. Pilapil, Jaime. “We Seek to Do Business with You.” The Manila Times. March 22, 2017.
  132. Placido, Dharel. “Xi Wants PH as China’s ‘Strategic’ Ally.” ABS-CBN News. November 20, 2018.
  133. Poling, Gregory, and Conor Cronin. “The Dangers of Allowing U.S.-Philippine Defense Cooperation to Languish.” War on the Rocks. May 17, 2018.
  134. Poushter, Jacob, and Caldwell Bishop. “People in the Philippines Still Favor U.S. Over China, but Gap Is Narrowing.” Pew Global Research Center. September 21, 2017.
  135. “President Jokowi Spotlights Maritime Development at Our Ocean Conference.” The Jakarta Post. October 30, 2018.
  136. Punongbayan, J.C. “[OPINION] What Scares Me the Most About China’s New, ‘Friendly’ Loans.” Rappler. March 3, 2018.
  137. Putz, Catherine. “Why Did Russia’s Pivot to Asia Fail?” The Diplomat. April 24, 2016.
  138. Qin, Amy. “Worries Grow in Singapore Over China’s Calls to Help ‘Motherland’.” The New York Times. August 5, 2018.
  139. Ramos, Christia Marie. “Locsin: PH Can Turn to US if There’s a ‘Clear Act of Aggression’ in South China Sea.” Inquirer. April 16, 2019.
  140. Ranada, Pia. “China Envoy Visits Duterte Days Before Hague Ruling.” Rappler. July 7, 2016.
  141. Ranada, Pia. “Duterte Jokes: Why Not Make Philippines a Province of China?” Rappler. June 28, 2018a.
  142. Ranada, Pia. “LIST: Deals Signed During Xi Jinping’s Trip to Philippines.” Rappler. November 20, 2018b.
  143. “Filipinos Like the US Even More Than Americans Do—Pew Research.” May 20, 2019.
  144. Ravenhill, John. “Is China an Economic Threat to Southeast Asia?” Asian Survey 46, no. 5 (2006): 653–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Requejo, Rey. “Duterte Told: Assert Philippines Control of West Philippine Sea.” Manila Standard. July 26, 2018.
  146. Reuters. “Maldives Set to Pull Out of ‘Lopsided’ Free Trade Deal with China, Says Presidential Adviser.” South China Morning Post. November 19, 2018.
  147. Robson, Seth. “Deployment of USS Wasp, F-35Bs Shows US Commitment to Philippines, Commander Says.” Stars and Stripes. April 9, 2019.
  148. Rogin, Josh. “Inside China’s ‘Tantrum Diplomacy’ at APEC.” The Washington Post. November 20, 2018.
  149. Roxas, Pathricia Ann. “Duterte: South China Sea Dispute Is ‘Better Left Untouched’.” Inquirer. November 12, 2017.
  150. Salaverria, Leila. “Duterte Asks Russia: Be PH Ally and Protector.” Inquirer. January 7, 2017.
  151. Santos, Matikas. “85% of Filipinos Love US—Survey.” Inquirer. April 22, 2014.
  152. Schultz, Kai. “Sri Lanka, Struggling with Debt, Hands Over a Major Port to China.” The New York Times. December 12, 2017.
  153. “Senators Back Duterte Call to Review All Government Contracts.” ABS-CBN News. April 3, 2019.
  154. Shambaugh, David. “U.S.-China Rivalry in Southeast Asia: Power Shift or Competitive Coexistence?” International Security 42, no. 4 (2018). Scholar
  155. Sharma, Kiran. “‘Quad’ Seen to Discuss Ways to Curb China’s Influence in Indo-Pacific.” Nikkei Asian Review. November 14, 2018.
  156. Sipahutar, Tassia, Viriya Singgih, and Eko Listiyorini. “Jokowi Plans Record Spending in Indonesia’s Election Year.” Bloomberg. August 16, 2018.
  157. Snegov, Alex. “Vietnam Open to Russian Return to Cam Ranh Bay.” Russia Beyond. May 18, 2018.
  158. Spetalnick, Matt, and David Brunnstrom. “Exclusive: Top Obama Aide to Take Call for South China Sea Calm to Beijing.” Reuters. July 22, 2016.
  159. Sukumaran, Tashny. “In China’s Debt, Malaysia and Pakistan Pledge to Help Each Other.” South China Morning Post. November 21, 2018.
  160. Suzuki, Wataru. “TPP-11 Opens Doors to New Members.” Nikkei Asian Review. January 19, 2019.
  161. Takenaka, Kiyoshi. “Malaysia PM Says Japan to Consider Future Financial Support.” Reuters. November 6, 2018.
  162. Tang, Frank. “China’s Former Chief Trade Negotiator Criticizes Beijing’s ‘Unwise’ Tactics in US Tariff War.” South China Morning Post. November 18, 2018.
  163. Taylor, Guy. “China Rivalry Hovers Over Pompeo’s Manila Stop.” Washington Times. February 28, 2019.
  164. “The Galleon Trade.” Philippine Last date modified January 12, 2019.
  165. “The Perils of China’s ‘Debt-Trap Diplomacy’.” The Economist. September 6, 2018.
  166. “This Is Going to Hurt.” The Economist. August 2, 2014.
  167. Vaswani, Karishma. “Apec: A Family Feud with No End in Sight.” BBC News. November 19, 2018.
  168. “Vietnam Challenges China in Asean Talks.” Inquirer. August 6, 2017.
  169. Viray, Patricia Lourdes. “Photos: 2018 Balikatan Amphibious Exercise.” Philstar. May 11, 2018a.
  170. Viray, Patricia Lourdes. “Philippines, China Draw ‘Red Lines’ in South China Sea Dispute.” Philstar Global. May 29, 2018b.
  171. Viray, Patricia Lourdes. “Pulse Asia: 7 in 10 Filipinos Want Duterte to Assert Rights in West Philippine Sea.” Philstar Global. July 12, 2018c.
  172. Viray, Patricia Lourdes. “Senate Minority Wants Probe into Chinese Planes in Davao, Chinese Shows on PTV.” Philstar Global. July 9, 2018d.
  173. Wain, Barry. Malaysian Maverick: Mahathir Mohamad in Turbulent Times. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Walker, Christopher, and Jessica Ludwig. “The Meaning of Sharp Power.” Foreign Affairs. November 16, 2017.
  175. Wan, William, and Abigail Hauslohner. “China, Russia Sign $400 Billion Gas Deal.” The Washington Post. May 21, 2014.
  176. Weatherbee, Donald. International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy, 2nd edition. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.Google Scholar
  177. Wong, Catherine. “Singapore Leader Lee Hsien Loong Warns Region May Have to Choose Between China and US.” South China Morning Post. November 15, 2018.
  178. “Xi Urges All Chinese to Contribute to National Rejuvenation.” Xinhua. February 17, 2017.
  179. Yap, D.J. “Russia to Buy $2.5B in PH Agri Produce—DTI Chief.” Inquirer. November 21, 2016.
  180. Yashinta, Difa Pramudyani. “Indonesia Puts Forward Spirit of Cooperation to Tackle Global Challenges.” Antara News. October 24, 2018.
  181. Yong, Charissa. “S’poreans Should Be Aware of China’s Influence Ops: Bilahari.” The Straits Times. June 28, 2018.
  182. Zaccheus, Melody. “New SCCC to Open with Cultural Festival.” The Straits Times. April 25, 2017.
  183. Zengerie, Patricia. “Exclusive: U.S. Stopped Philippines Rifle Sale That Senator Opposed—Sources.” Reuters. November 1, 2016.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Javad Heydarian
    • 1
  1. 1.Visiting Research FellowNational Chengchi UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations