Advertisement

Sports-Related Injuries of the Anterior Segment

  • Mohamed S. Sayed
  • Elaine Han
  • Richard K. LeeEmail author
Chapter
  • 27 Downloads
Part of the Ocular Trauma book series (OCTRA)

Abstract

Sports-related eye injury is a significant cause of morbidity and disability and accounts for a significant proportion of ocular trauma, especially in the young. Although some sports-related ocular injuries can be self-resolving and require little to no intervention, many other injuries have long-term sequelae that require extensive treatment and follow-up. A thorough evaluation of the mechanism of and circumstances surrounding the ocular injury is important to guide further management of the case. Blunt trauma has a significantly different pathophysiologic process compared to trauma by a sharp object, and the evaluation of the injury should be cognizant of the ocular trauma expected. The conjunctiva is most frequently involved in sports-related ocular injuries, and the nature of the conjunctival injury can often indicate involvement of other potential ocular structures. Examples of other anterior segment injuries that can result from sports-related ocular trauma include structural or functional damage to the cornea, iris injury leading to iris prolapse or laceration, ciliary body injury resulting in ciliary body detachment, lens injury resulting in cataract or subluxation/dislocation of the lens, and traumatic glaucoma. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis, clinical findings, treatment options, and prognosis of sports-related injuries of the anterior segment.

Keywords

Sports-related Traumatic eye injury Iris injury Traumatic glaucoma Lens injury Ciliary body injury 

References

  1. 1.
    Haring RS, Sheffield ID, Canner JK, Schneider EB. Epidemiology of sports-related eye injuries in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(12):1382–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haring RS, Canner JK, Haider AH, Schneider EB. Ocular injury in the United States: emergency department visits from 2006–2011. Injury. 2016;47(1):104–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Channa R, Zafar SN, Canner JK, et al. Epidemiology of eye-related emergency department visits. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(3):312–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Esquivel AO, Bruder A, Ratkowiak K, Lemos SE. Soccer-related injuries in children and adults aged 5 to 49 years in US emergency departments from 2000 to 2012. Sports Health. 2015;7(4):366–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coronado VG, Haileyesus T, Cheng TA, et al. Trends in sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries treated in US emergency departments: the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-all Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) 2001-2012. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015;30(3):185–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuhn F. Clinical epidemiology, prevention, and rehabilitation. In: Kuhn F, editor. Ocular traumatology. Berlin: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Danis RP, Hu K, Bell M. Acceptability of baseball face guards and reduction of oculofacial injury in receptive youth league players. Inj Prev. 2000;6(3):232–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Easterbrook M. Ocular injuries in racquet sports. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1988;28(3):232–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Listman DA. Paintball injuries in children: more than meets the eye. Pediatrics. 2004;113(1 Pt 1):e15–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mukherjee P, Sivakumar A. Tetanus prophylaxis in superficial corneal abrasions. Emerg Med J. 2003;20(1):62–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bai HQ, Yao L, Wang DB, et al. Causes and treatments of traumatic secondary glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19(2):201–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuhn F. Conjunctiva. In: Kuhn F, editor. Ocular traumatology. Berlin: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuhn F, Mester V, Berta A, Morris R. [Epidemiology of severe eye injuries. United States Eye Injury Registry (USEIR) and Hungarian Eye Injury Registry (HEIR)]. Ophthalmologe. 1998;95(5):332–343.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuhn F. Cornea. In: Kuhn F, editor. Ocular traumatology. Berlin: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weene LE. Recurrent corneal erosion after trauma: a statistical study. Ann Ophthalmol. 1985;17(9):521–2.4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sharma A, Votruba M. Thymoxamine in the treatment of traumatic mydriasis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77(10):681.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ogawa GS. The iris cerclage suture for permanent mydriasis: a running suture technique. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1998;29(12):1001–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siepser SB. The closed chamber slipping suture technique for iris repair. Ann Ophthalmol. 1994;26(3):71–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barlow A, Weiner HL. Traumatic iridodialysis: its surgical correction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1945;34:292–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCannel MA. A retrievable suture idea for anterior uveal problems. Ophthalmic Surg. 1976;7(2):98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wachler BB, Krueger RR. Double-armed McCannell suture for repair of traumatic iridodialysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122(1):109–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Romem M, Singer L. Traumatic aniridia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1973;57(8):613–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Qiu X, Ji Y, Zheng T, Lu Y. Long-term efficacy and complications of black diaphragm intraocular lens implantation in patients with traumatic aniridia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015;99(5):659–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Srinivasan S, Ting DS, Snyder ME, et al. Prosthetic iris devices. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014;49(1):6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Costa VP, Arcieri ES. Hypotony maculopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85(6):586–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pederson JE. Ocular hypotony. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1986;105(Pt 2):220–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aminlari A, Callahan CE. Medical, laser, and surgical management of inadvertent cyclodialysis cleft with hypotony. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(3):399–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Razeghinejad MR, Dehghani C. Effect of ocular hypotony secondary to cyclodialysis cleft on corneal topography. Cornea. 2008;27(5):609–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ding C, Zeng J. Clinical study on hypotony following blunt ocular trauma. Int J Ophthalmol. 2012;5(6):771–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kucukerdonmez C, Beutel J, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Gelisken F. Treatment of chronic ocular hypotony with intraocular application of sodium hyaluronate. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(2):235–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kuhl D, Mieler W. Ciliary body. In: Kuhn F, Pieramici D, editors. Ocuar trauma principles and practice. New York, NY: Thieme New York; 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang JG, Yao GM, Li SP, et al. Surgical treatment for 42 patients with traumatic annular ciliochoroidal detachment. Int J Ophthalmol. 2011;4(1):81–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ormerod LD, Baerveldt G, Sunalp MA, Riekhof FT. Management of the hypotonous cyclodialysis cleft. Ophthalmology. 1991;98(9):1384–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suguro K, Toris CB, Pederson JE. Uveoscleral outflow following cyclodialysis in the monkey eye using a fluorescent tracer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985;26(6):810–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kronfeld PC. The fluid exchange in the successfully cyclodialyzed eye. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1954;52:249–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shaffer RN, Weiss DI. Concerning cyclodialysis and hypotony. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;68:25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ioannidis AS, Barton K. Cyclodialysis cleft: causes and repair. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21(2):150–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Joondeph HC. Management of postoperative and post-traumatic cyclodialysis clefts with argon laser photocoagulation. Ophthalmic Surg. 1980;11(3):186–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harbin TS Jr. Treatment of cyclodialysis clefts with argon laser photocoagulation. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(9):1082–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Amini H, Razeghinejad MR. Transscleral diode laser therapy for cyclodialysis cleft induced hypotony. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33(4):348–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brown SV, Mizen T. Transscleral diode laser therapy for traumatic cyclodialysis cleft. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28(4):313–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barasch K, Galin MA, Baras I. Postcyclodialysis hypotony. Am J Ophthalmol. 1969;68(4):644–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maumenee AE, Stark WJ. Management of persistent hypotony after planned or inadvertent cyclodialysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;71(1 Pt 2):320–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krohn J. Cryotherapy in the treatment of cyclodialysis cleft induced hypotony. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1997;75(1):96–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ceruti P, Tosi R, Marchini G. Gas tamponade and cyclocryotherapy of a chronic cyclodialysis cleft. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(3):414–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spiegel D, Katz LJ, McNamara JA. Surgical repair of a traumatic cyclodialysis cleft after laser failure. Ophthalmic Surg. 1990;21(5):372–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lamkin JC, Azar DT, Mead MD, Volpe NJ. Simultaneous corneal laceration repair, cataract removal, and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;113(6):626–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Berinstein DM, Gentile RC, Sidoti PA, et al. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in anterior ocular trauma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28(3):201–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Boorstein JM, Titelbaum DS, Patel Y, et al. CT diagnosis of unsuspected traumatic cataracts in patients with complicated eye injuries: significance of attenuation value of the lens. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(1):181–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grewal SP, Jain R, Gupta R, Grewal D. Role of Scheimpflug imaging in traumatic intralenticular foreign body. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142(4):675–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Singh R, Ram J, Gupta R. Use of Scheimpflug imaging in the management of intra-lenticular foreign body. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2015;7(13):82–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McElvanney AM, Talbot EM. Posterior chamber lens implantation combined with pars plana vitrectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1997;23(1):106–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Almog Y, Reider-Groswasser I, Goldstein M, et al. “The disappearing lens”: failure of CT to image the lens in traumatic intumescent cataract. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1999;23(3):354–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Keeney AH. Intralenticular foreign bodies. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;86(5):499–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Klemen UM, Freyler H. Siderosis bulbi et lentis produced by intralenticular rust (author’s transl). Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1978;172(2):258–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mester V, Kuhn F. Lens. In: Kuhn F, Pieramici DJ, editors. Ocular trauma principles and practice. New York, NY: Thieme New York; 2002.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Osher RH. Slow motion phacoemulsification approach. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1993;19(5):667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lifshitz T, Levy J, Kratz A, et al. Planned posterior assisted levitation in severe subluxated cataract: surgical technique and clinical results. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012;60(6):567–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eckstein M, Vijayalakshmi P, Killedar M, et al. Use of intraocular lenses in children with traumatic cataract in South India. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998;82(8):911–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Malukiewicz-Wisniewska G, Kaluzny J, Lesiewska-Junk H, Eliks I. Intraocular lens implantation in children and youth. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1999;36(3):129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nihalani BR, VanderVeen DK. Technological advances in pediatric cataract surgery. Semin Ophthalmol. 2010;25(5–6):271–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hazirolan DO, Altiparmak UE, Aslan BS, Duman S. Vitrectorhexis versus forceps capsulorhexis for anterior and posterior capsulotomy in congenital cataract surgery. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46(2):104–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kochgaway L, Biswas P, Paul A, et al. Vitrectorhexis versus forceps posterior capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013;61(7):361–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Assia EI, Legler UF, Apple DJ. The capsular bag after short- and long-term fixation of intraocular lenses. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(8):1151–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chang DF. Single versus three piece acrylic IOLs. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88(6):727–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Davison JA. Capsule contraction syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1993;19(5):582–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hayashi H, Hayashi K, Nakao F, Hayashi F. Anterior capsule contraction and intraocular lens dislocation in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998;82(12):1429–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rubsamen PE, Irvin WD, McCuen BW 2nd, et al. Primary intraocular lens implantation in the setting of penetrating ocular trauma. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(1):101–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Holt DG, Young J, Stagg B, Ambati BK. Anterior chamber intraocular lens, sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens, or glued intraocular lens: where do we stand? Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23(1):62–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sawada T, Kimura W, Kimura T, et al. Long-term follow-up of primary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1998;24(11):1515–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Smith PW, Wong SK, Stark WJ, et al. Complications of semiflexible, closed-loop anterior chamber intraocular lenses. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105(1):52–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Li J, Yuan G, Ying L, et al. Modified implantation of black diaphragm intraocular lens in traumatic aniridia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39(6):822–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Maggi R, Maggi C. Sutureless scleral fixation of intraocular lenses. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1997;23(9):1289–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gabor SG, Pavlidis MM. Sutureless intrascleral posterior chamber intraocular lens fixation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33(11):1851–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Scharioth GB, Prasad S, Georgalas I, et al. Intermediate results of sutureless intrascleral posterior chamber intraocular lens fixation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010;36(2):254–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ganekal S, Venkataratnam S, Dorairaj S, Jhanji V. Comparative evaluation of suture-assisted and fibrin glue-assisted scleral fixated intraocular lens implantation. J Refract Surg. 2012;28(4):249–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kumar DA, Agarwal A, Agarwal A, et al. Long-term assessment of tilt of glued intraocular lenses: an optical coherence tomography analysis 5 years after surgery. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(1):48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Agarwal A, Kumar DA, Jacob S, et al. Fibrin glue-assisted sutureless posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in eyes with deficient posterior capsules. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34(9):1433–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kumar DA, Agarwal A, Jacob S, et al. Combined surgical management of capsular and iris deficiency with glued intraocular lens technique. J Refract Surg. 2013;29(5):342–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ahmedbegovic Pjano M, Alikadic-Husovic A, Grisevic S, et al. Efficacy and safety of iris-supported phakic lenses (Verisyse) for treating moderately high myopia. Med Glas (Zenica). 2016;13(1):25–30.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bouheraoua N, Bonnet C, Labbe A, et al. Iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct myopia and a predictive model of endothelial cell loss. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015;41(11):2450–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Karimian F, Baradaran-Rafii A, Hashemian SJ, et al. Comparison of three phakic intraocular lenses for correction of myopia. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2014;9(4):427–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Guell JL, Verdaguer P, Elies D, et al. Secondary iris-claw anterior chamber lens implantation in patients with aphakia without capsular support. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98(5):658–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Teng H, Zhang H, Tian F, et al. [Artisan iris claw intraocular lens implantation for the correction of aphakia after pars plana vitrectomy]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2014;50(2):89–94.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gawdat GI, Taher SG, Salama MM, Ali AA. Evaluation of artisan aphakic intraocular lens in cases of pediatric aphakia with insufficient capsular support. J AAPOS. 2015;19(3):242–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chen Y, Liu Q, Xue C, et al. Three-year follow-up of secondary anterior iris fixation of an aphakic intraocular lens to correct aphakia. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38(9):1595–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gonnermann J, Amiri S, Klamann M, et al. [Endothelial cell loss after retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens implantation]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 2014;231(8):784–787.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Forlini M, Soliman W, Bratu A, et al. Long-term follow-up of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens implantation: a retrospective analysis. BMC Ophthalmol. 2015;15:143.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gonnermann J, Torun N, Klamann MK, et al. Posterior iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens implantation in children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156(2):382–6 e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hirashima DE, Soriano ES, Meirelles RL, et al. Outcomes of iris-claw anterior chamber versus iris-fixated foldable intraocular lens in subluxated lens secondary to Marfan syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(8):1479–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Por YM, Lavin MJ. Techniques of intraocular lens suspension in the absence of capsular/zonular support. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50(5):429–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bowman RJ, Yorston D, Wood M, et al. Primary intraocular lens implantation for penetrating lens trauma in Africa. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(9):1770–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pavlovic S. Primary intraocular lens implantation during pars plana vitrectomy and intraretinal foreign body removal. Retina. 1999;19(5):430–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Thouvenin D, Lesueur L, Arne JL. Intercapsular implantation in the management of cataract in children. Study of 87 cases and comparison to 88 cases without implantation. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1995;18(11):678–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Koenig SB, Ruttum MS, Lewandowski MF, Schultz RO. Pseudophakia for traumatic cataracts in children. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(8):1218–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chan TK, Mackintosh G, Yeoh R, Lim AS. Primary posterior chamber IOL implantation in penetrating ocular trauma. Int Ophthalmol. 1993;17(3):137–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tyagi AK, Kheterpal S, Callear AB, et al. Simultaneous posterior chamber intraocular lens implant combined with vitreoretinal surgery for intraocular foreign body injuries. Eye (Lond). 1998;12(Pt 2):230–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kora Y, Shimizu K, Inatomi M, et al. Eye growth after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in children. Ophthalmic Surg. 1993;24(7):467–75.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    BenEzra D, Cohen E, Rose L. Traumatic cataract in children: correction of aphakia by contact lens or intraocular lens. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(6):773–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lesueur L, Thouvenin D, Arne JL. [Visual and sensory results of surgical treatment of cataract in children. Apropos of 135 cases]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1995;18(11):667–677.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    De Leon-Ortega JE, Girkin CA. Ocular trauma-related glaucoma. Ophthalmol Clin N Am. 2002;15(2):215–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Girkin CA, McGwin G Jr, Morris R, Kuhn F. Glaucoma following penetrating ocular trauma: a cohort study of the United States eye injury registry. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139(1):100–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sihota R, Sood NN, Agarwal HC. Traumatic glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1995;73(3):252–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    May DR, Kuhn FP, Morris RE, et al. The epidemiology of serious eye injuries from the United States eye injury registry. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000;238(2):153–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Klopfer J, Tielsch JM, Vitale S, et al. Ocular trauma in the United States. Eye injuries resulting in hospitalization, 1984 through 1987. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(6):838–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Haring RS, Canner JK, Haider AH, Schneider EB. Ocular injury in the United States: emergency department visits from 2006-2011. Injury 2015;47(1):104-108.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sayed MS, Lee RK. Current management approaches for uveitic glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2015;55(3):141–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bleiman BS, Schwartz AL. Paradoxical intraocular pressure response to pilocarpine. A proposed mechanism and treatment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97(7):1305–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Walton W, Von Hagen S, Grigorian R, Zarbin M. Management of traumatic hyphema. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47(4):297–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sankar PS, Chen TC, Grosskreutz CL, Pasquale LR. Traumatic hyphema. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42(3):57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Romano PE, Robinson JA. Traumatic hyphema: a comprehensive review of the past half century yields 8076 cases for which specific medical treatment reduces rebleeding 62%, from 13% to 5% (P<.0001). Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2000;15(2):175–86.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Crouch ER Jr, Crouch ER. Management of traumatic hyphema: therapeutic options. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1999;36(5):238–50; quiz 79–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Crouch ER, Williams P. Trauma: ruptures and bleeding. In: Tasman JE, editor. Duane’s clinical ophthalmology, vol. IV. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1993.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nuyen B, Mansouri K, Shaarawy TM. Post-traumatic glaucoma. In: Shaarawy TM, Sherwood MB, Hitchings RA, Crowston JG, editors. Glaucoma, vol. I. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders Limited; 2015.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Matelis KH, Congdon N. Glaucoma. In: Kuhn F, Pieramici DJ, editors. Ocular trauma principles and practice. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.; 2002.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rahmani B, Jahadi HR, Rajaeefard A. An analysis of risk for secondary hemorrhage in traumatic hyphema. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(2):380–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nasrullah A, Kerr NC. Sickle cell trait as a risk factor for secondary hemorrhage in children with traumatic hyphema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(6):783–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lai JC, Fekrat S, Barron Y, Goldberg MF. Traumatic hyphema in children: risk factors for complications. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(1):64–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mowatt L, Chambers C. Ocular morbidity of traumatic hyphema in a Jamaican hospital. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20(3):584–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Read JE, Goldberg MF. Blunt ocular trauma and hyphema. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1974;14(4):57–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cohen SB, Fletcher ME, Goldberg MF, Jednock NJ. Diagnosis and management of ocular complications of sickle hemoglobinopathies: part V. Ophthalmic Surg. 1986;17(6):369–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Crouch ER Jr, Frenkel M. Aminocaproic acid in the treatment of traumatic hyphema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1976;81(3):355–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Read J. Traumatic hyphema: surgical vs medical management. Ann Ophthalmol. 1975;7(5):659–62, 64–6, 68–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Aylward GW, Dunlop IS, Little BC. Meta-analysis of systemic anti-fibrinolytics in traumatic hyphaema. Eye (Lond). 1994;8(Pt 4):440–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kutner B, Fourman S, Brein K, et al. Aminocaproic acid reduces the risk of secondary hemorrhage in patients with traumatic hyphema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105(2):206–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Brandt MT, Haug RH. Traumatic hyphema: a comprehensive review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;59(12):1462–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nash DL, Sheppard JD. Hyphema. In: Talavera F, Rapuano CJ, eds. eMedicine. USA: Medscape, Nov 17, 2015; v. 2015. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1190165-overview
  128. 128.
    Wolff SM, Zimmerman LE. Chronic secondary glaucoma. Associated with retrodisplacement of iris root and deepening of the anterior chamber angle secondary to contusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 1962;54:547–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Blanton FM. Anterior chamber angle recession and secondary glaucoma. A study of the aftereffects of traumatic hyphemas. Arch Ophthalmol. 1964;72:39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Canavan YM, Archer DB. Anterior segment consequences of blunt ocular injury. Br J Ophthalmol. 1982;66(9):549–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kaufman JH, Tolpin DW. Glaucoma after traumatic angle recession. A ten-year prospective study. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;78(4):648–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mooney D. Angle recession and secondary glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1973;57(8):608–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Thiel HJ, Aden G, Pulhorn G. Changes in the chamber angle following ocular contusions (author’s transl). Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1980;177(2):165–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tesluk GC, Spaeth GL. The occurrence of primary open-angle glaucoma in the fellow eye of patients with unilateral angle-cleavage glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1985;92(7):904–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fukuchi T, Iwata K, Sawaguchi S, et al. Nd:YAG laser trabeculopuncture (YLT) for glaucoma with traumatic angle recession. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1993;231(10):571–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mermoud A, Salmon JF, Straker C, Murray AD. Post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma: a risk factor for bleb failure after trabeculectomy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77(10):631–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Manners T, Salmon JF, Barron A, et al. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the treatment of post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85(2):159–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mermoud A, Salmon JF, Barron A, et al. Surgical management of post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(5):634–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schlote T, Derse M, Rassmann K, et al. Efficacy and safety of contact transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation for advanced glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2001;10(4):294–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kivela T, Puska P, Raitta C, et al. Clinically successful contact transscleral krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation. Long-term histopathologic and immunohistochemical autopsy findings. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(11):1447–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    de Klerk TA, Au L. I-stent for treatment of angle recession with raised intraocular pressure. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;40(5):527–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kok H, Barton K. Uveitic glaucoma. Ophthalmol Clin N Am. 2002;15(3):375–87, viii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Endo S, Ishida N, Yamaguchi T. Tear in the trabecular meshwork caused by an airsoft gun. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131(5):656–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Herschler J. Trabecular damage due to blunt anterior segment injury and its relationship to traumatic glaucoma. Trans Sect Ophthalmol Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1977;83(2):239–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Alper MG. Contusion angle deformity and glaucoma. Gonioscopic observations and clinical course. Arch Ophthalmol. 1963;69:455–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Epstein DL. Diagnosis and management of lens-induced glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(3):227–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Campbell DG. Ghost cell glaucoma following trauma. Ophthalmology. 1981;88(11):1151–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cameron JD, Havener VR. Histologic confirmation of ghost cell glaucoma by routine light microscopy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96(2):251–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Fenton RH, Hunter WS. Hemolytic glaucoma. Surv Ophthalmol. 1965;10(4):355–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Phelps CD, Watzke RC. Hemolytic glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1975;80(4):690–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Vannas S. Hemosiderosis in eyes with secondary glaucoma after delayed intraocular hemorrhages. Acta Ophthalmol. 1960;38:254–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed S. Sayed
    • 1
  • Elaine Han
    • 1
  • Richard K. Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations