A Comparative Study of Reversible Video Watermarking Using Automatic Threshold Adjuster and Non-feedback-Based DE Method

  • Subhajit DasEmail author
  • Arun Kumar Sunaniya
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 766)


For authentication and content protection, the act of hiding information in frames is done by reversible video watermarking. An automatic threshold adjuster-based reversible video watermarking (ATAVW) method using difference expansion (DE) for gray-scale video processing system is provided in this paper. To present the best watermarked video frames of an input video stream in terms of peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), the maximum payload size and the embedded threshold with respect to the embedding capacity is automatically calculated by the proposed algorithm. The main feature of ATAVW method is that the payload size and the embedding threshold are not needed to be specified by the user, like other feedback-based reversible video watermarking algorithms to restore the accurate original video. Software implementation results for an input video having 30 frames are explained based on their quality of services parameters. The ATAVW method is then compared with the non-feedback-based reversible watermarking algorithms. These results clearly demonstrated that the ATAVW method provides higher PSNR and embedding capability with respect to the DE method for reversible watermarking.


Difference expansion Threshold adjuster Video watermarking PSNR SSIM 



The authors would like to show their appreciation to TEQUIP-III, NIT Silchar for providing financial assistance, and VLSI Research Lab, Department of Electronics, and Instrumentation Engineering, NIT Silchar to carry out the research work.


  1. 1.
    Potdar, V.M., Han, S., Chang, E.: A survey of digital image watermarking techniques. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, pp. 709–716 Aug 2005Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gwenael, A.D., Dugelay, J.L.: A guide tour of video watermarking. Signal Process. Image Commun. 18(4), 263–282 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Piva, A., Bartolini, F., Barni, M.: Managing copyright in open networks. IEEE Trans. Internet Comput. 6(3), 18–26 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shoshan, Y., Fish, A., Li, X., Jullien, G.A., Yadid-Pecht, O.: VLSI watermark implementations and applications. Int. J. Inf. Technol. Knowl. 2(4), 379–386 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, X., Shoshan, Y., Fish, A., Jullien, G.A., Yadid-Pecht, O.: Hardware implementations of video watermarking. In: International Book Series on Information Science and Computing, no. 5, pp. 9–16. Institute of Information Theories and Applications, FOI ITHEA, Sofia, Bulgaria, June 2008 (supplement to the Int. J. Inform. Technol. Knowl. 2 (2008))Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cox, I.J., Kilian, J., Leighton, F.T., Shamoon, T.: Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mohanty, S.P.:. Digital Watermarking: A Tutorial Review. (1999)
  8. 8.
    Barton, J.M.: Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data. US Patent 5646997 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Honsinger, C.W., Jones, P., Rabbani, M., et al.: Lossless recovery of an original image containing embedded data. US Patent 6278791 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caldelli, R., Filippini, F., Becarelli, R.: Reversible watermarking techniques: an overview and a classification. EURASIP J. Inf. Secur. (2010). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feng, J.-B., Lin, I.-C., Tsai, C.-S., Chu, Y.-P.: Reversible watermarking: current states and key issues. Int. J. Netw. Secur. 2, 161–171 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Coltuc, D., Tremeau, A., Delp, E.J., Wong, P.W.: Simple reversible watermarking scheme. In: SPIE: Security, Steganography, Watermarking Multimedia Contents, vol. 5681, pp. 561–568 (2005).
  13. 13.
    Coltuc, D., Chassery, J.M., Delp, E.J., Wong, P.W.: Simple reversible watermarking scheme: further results. In: SPIE: Security, Steganography, Watermarking Multimedia Contents VIII, vol. 6072, pp. 739–746 (2006).
  14. 14.
    Tian, J.: Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13(8), 890–896 (2003). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alattar, A.M.: Reversible watermark using the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(8), 1147–1156 (2004). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu, Y.-C., Hsien-Chu, W., Shyr-Shen, Yu.: Adaptive DE-based reversible steganographic technique using bilinear interpolation and simplified location map. Multimed. Tools Appl. 52(2–3), 263–276 (2011). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Das, S., Maity, R., Maity, N.P.: VLSI-based pipeline architecture for reversible image watermarking by difference expansion with high-level synthesis approach. Circuits Syst. Signal Process. 37(4), 1575–1593 (2018)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghosh, S., Das, N., Das, S., Maity, S.P., Rahaman, H.: An adaptive feedback based reversible watermarking algorithm using difference expansion. In: IEEE RETIS (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sasi Varnan, C., Jagan, A., Kaur, J., Jyoti, D., Rao, D.S.: Image quality assessment techniques in spatial domain. IJCST 2(3) (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of TechnologySilcharIndia

Personalised recommendations