Copy–Move Attack Detection from Digital Images: An Image Forensic Approach

  • Badal SoniEmail author
  • Pradip K. Das
  • Dalton Meitei Thounaojam
  • Debalina Biswas
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 766)


Due to the new development of image handling tool or software, copy–move attack is increasingly becoming a common practice and on the other hand, the detection of such type of attack from digital images has become the challenging and active research area. This paper presents the recent block and keypoints-based Copy–Move Forgery Detection (CMFD) techniques. In this paper, we cover the critical discussions of different blocks and keypoints-based CMFD techniques with their pros and cons. The paper also describes the different publicly available databases and performance evaluation measures. Some unsolved research issues in the field of copy–move forgery detection is identified and present in this paper.


Copy–move forgery SIFT SURF Image forensics Image processing Image security Image matching Image feature Image stenography 


  1. 1.
    Luo, X.-Y., Wang, D.-S., Wang, P., Liu, F.-L.: A review on blind detection for image steganography. Signal Process. 88(9), 2138–2157 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huo, Y., He, H., Chen, F.: A semi-fragile image watermarking algorithm with two-stage detection. Multimed. Tools Appl. 72(1), 123–149 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Piva, A.: An overview on image forensics. ISRN Signal Process. 2013 2013Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birajdar, G.K., Mankar, V.H.: Digital image forgery detection using passive techniques: a survey. Digit. Investig. 10(3), 226–245 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Soni, B., Das, P.K., Thounaojam, D.M.: CMFD: a detailed review of block based and key feature based techniques in image copy-move forgery detection. IET Image Process. 12(11), 167–178 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhong, J., Gan, Y., Young, J., Huang, L., Lin, P.: A new block-based method for copy move forgery detection under image geometric transforms. Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(13), 14887–14903 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang, H., Wang, H.-X., Sun, X.-M., Qian, Q.: A passive authentication scheme for copy-move forgery based on package clustering algorithm. Multimed. Tools Appl. 76(10), 12627–12644 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin, C.S., Chen, C.C., Chang, Y.C.: An efficiency enhanced cluster expanding block algorithm for copy-move forgery detection. In: International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems, pp. 228–231 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Soni, B., Das, P.K., Thounaojam, D.M.: An efficient block phase correlation approach for cmfd system. In: Pattnaik, P.K., Rautaray, S.S., Das, H., Nayak, J., (eds.) Progress in Computing, Analytics and Networking, pp. 41–49. Springer, Singapore (2018)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dixit, R., Naskar, R., Mishra, S.: Blur-invariant copy-move forgery detection technique with improved detection accuracy utilising swt-svd. IET Image Process. 11(5), 301–309 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Soni, B., Das, P.K., Thounaojam, D.M.: Copy-move tampering detection based on local binary pattern histogram fourier feature. In: International Conference on Computer and Communication Technology, ICCCT-2017, pp. 78–83. ACM, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sekhar, R., Shaji, R.S.: An investigation on the use of mser and sift for image forgery detection (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang, F., Li, J., Wei, L., Weng, J.: Copy-move forgery detection based on hybrid features. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell. 59, 73–83 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guo, J.-M., Liu, Y.-F., Zong-Jhe, W.: Duplication forgery detection using improved daisy descriptor. Expert Syst. Appl. 40(2), 707–714 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liyang, Y., Han, Q., Niu, X.: Feature point-based copy-move forgery detection: covering the non-textured areas. Multimed. Tools Appl. 75(2), 1159–1176 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warif, N.B.A., Wahab, A.W.A., Idris, M.Y.I., Salleh, R., Othman, F.: Sift-symmetry: a robust detection method for copy-move forgery with reflection attack. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 46, 219–232 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shahroudnejad, A., Rahmati, M.: Copy-move forgery detection in digital images using affine-sift. In: 2016 2nd International Conference of Signal Processing and Intelligent Systems (ICSPIS), pp. 1–5 (2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soni, B., Das, P.K., Thounaojam, D.M.: multicmfd: fast and efficient system for multiple copy-move forgeries detection in image. In: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Image and Graphics Processing, ICIGP 2018, pp. 53–58. ACM, New York (2018)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dong, J., Wang, W., Tan, T.: Casia image tampering detection evaluation database. In: 2013 IEEE China Summit and International Conference on Signal and Information Processing (ChinaSIP), pp. 422–426. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tralic, D., Zupancic, I., Grgic, S., Grgic, M.: CoMoFoD new database for copy-move forgery detection. In: ELMAR, 2013 55th International Symposium, pp. 49–54. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Amerini, I., Ballan, L., Caldelli, R., Del Bimbo, A., Serra, G.: A sift-based forensic method for copy-move attack detection and transformation recovery. IEEE Trans. Inform. Forensics Secur. 6(3), 1099–1110 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Soni, B., Das, P.K., Thounaojam, D.M.: Blur invariant block based copy-move forgery detection technique using fwht features. In: International Conference on Watermarking and Image Processing, ICWIP 2017, pp. 22–26, ACM, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang, B., Sun, X., Guo, H., Xia, Z., Chen, X.: A copy-move forgery detection method based on cmfd-sift. Multimed. Tools Appl. 77(1), 837–855 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Badal Soni
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Pradip K. Das
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalton Meitei Thounaojam
    • 1
    • 2
  • Debalina Biswas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Technology SilcharSilcharIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations