Advertisement

Diet and Nutrition in Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Aging

  • Muhammed Bule
  • Muhammad Ajmal ShahEmail author
  • Ahmed Abdulahi Abdurahman
  • Malik Saad Ullah
  • Shahid Shah
  • Adnan Amin
  • Kamal Niaz
Chapter

Abstract

According to UN report of the world aging, older people are those 60 years of age and over, though others defined those over 85 as “oldest old.” Aging is a complex and gradual process which involves degeneration of cells mainly due to cellular redox reactions that result in detrimental biochemical and genetic alterations. Studies have related the risk of age-related diseases with increased level of oxidants. Dietary polyphenols like flavonoids are strong antioxidant that acts through interacting with reactive oxygen species producing reactive metals. All organisms need organic and inorganic nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water. These nutrients have a significant role in regular biological activities like metabolism, growth, and repair. Protein is the most essential among the three macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrates, protein, and fat) responsible for aging. Moreover, bioactive chemicals from plants are important, though not essential, and they have been referred to as “life span essential,” since they have beneficial effect in healthy aging. Therefore, dietary interventions along with avoiding risk factors will reduce the risk of age-related degenerative diseases and increase healthy life span among the elderly.

Keywords

Alzheimer disease Aging Nutrition Protein Minerals Vitamins Omega fatty acids 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This article is the outcome of an in-house financially nonsupported study.

Author Contributions

All authors have directly participated in the planning or drafting of the manuscript and read and approved the final version.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbatecola AM, Russo M, Barbieri M (2018) Dietary patterns and cognition in older persons. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 21(1):10–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed T, Haboubi N (2010) Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clin Interv Aging 5:207PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Alles B et al (2012) Dietary patterns: a novel approach to examine the link between nutrition and cognitive function in older individuals. Nutr Res Rev 25(2):207–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amadoro G et al (2006) NMDA receptor mediates tau-induced neurotoxicity by calpain and ERK/MAPK activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103(8):2892–2897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Araújo LF et al (2015) Inconsistency of association between coffee consumption and cognitive function in adults and elderly in a cross-sectional study (ELSA-Brasil). Nutrients 7(11):9590–9601PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balagopal P, Proctor D, Nair KS (1997) Sarcopenia and hormonal changes. Endocrine 7(1):57–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard ND et al (2014) Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 35:S74–S78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumgartner RN (2000) Body composition in healthy aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 904(1):437–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beydoun MA et al (2014) Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among US adults–3. J Nutr 144(6):890–901PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown JV et al (2016) Multi-nutrient fortification of human milk for preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (5):Cd000343Google Scholar
  11. Bule MH et al (2018) Microalgae as a source of high-value bioactive compounds. Front Biosci(Sch Ed) 10:197–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calder PC (2012) Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids, 2. J Nutr 142(3):592S–599SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cassano T et al (2012) Glutamatergic alterations and mitochondrial impairment in a murine model of Alzheimer disease. Neurobiol Aging 33(6):1121. e1–1121. e12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cederholm T, Salem N Jr, Palmblad J (2013) Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cognitive decline in humans. Adv Nutr 4(6):672–676PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen J et al (2017) A review of dietary Ziziphus jujuba fruit (Jujube): developing health food supplements for brain protection. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017Google Scholar
  16. Clements SJ, Carding SR (2018) Diet, the intestinal microbiota, and immune health in aging. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 58(4):651–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dai Q et al (2006) Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer’s disease: the kame project. Am J Med 119(9):751–759PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong L et al (2016) Diet, lifestyle and cognitive function in old Chinese adults. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 63:36–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eastley R, Wilcock GK, Bucks RS (2000) Vitamin B12 deficiency in dementia and cognitive impairment: the effects of treatment on neuropsychological function. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 15(3):226–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Filannino P, Di Cagno R, Gobbetti M (2018) Metabolic and functional paths of lactic acid bacteria in plant foods: get out of the labyrinth. Curr Opin Biotechnol 49:64–72PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Francis PT (2003) Glutamatergic systems in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 18(S1):S15–S21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gil A, Gil F (2015) Fish, a Mediterranean source of n-3 PUFA: benefits do not justify limiting consumption. Br J Nutr 113(Suppl 2):S58–S67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gómez-Pinilla F (2008) Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Nat Rev Neurosci 9(7):568PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gu Y et al (2010) Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk: a protective diet. Arch Neurol 67(6):699–706PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hagl S et al (2015) Beneficial effects of ethanolic and hexanic rice bran extract on mitochondrial function in PC12 cells and the search for bioactive components. Molecules 20(9):16524–16539PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hardman RJ et al (2015) A randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of Mediterranean diet and aerobic exercise on cognition in cognitively healthy older people living independently within aged care facilities: the lifestyle intervention in independent living aged care (LIILAC) study protocol [ACTRN12614001133628]. Nutr J 14:53PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hennebelle M et al (2013) Ageing and apoE change DHA homeostasis: relevance to age-related cognitive decline. Proc Nutr Soc 73(1):80–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hennebelle M et al (2014) Ageing and apoE change DHA homeostasis: relevance to age-related cognitive decline. Proc Nutr Soc 73(1):80–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Houston DK et al (2008) Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the health, aging, and body composition (health ABC) study. Am J Clin Nutr 87(1):150–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hunter PM, Hegele RA (2017) Functional foods and dietary supplements for the management of dyslipidaemia. Nat Rev Endocrinol 13(5):278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacob C et al (2007) Alterations in expression of glutamatergic transporters and receptors in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 11(1):97–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jones JM et al (2017) Impact of minerals, phytochemicals, specific grain-based foods, and dietary patterns on mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Cereal Foods World 62(3):104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kesse-Guyot E et al (2014) Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function. Br J Nutr 111(5):915–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kozarski M et al (2015) Antioxidants of edible mushrooms. Molecules 20(10):19489–19525PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. LaRocca TJ, Martens CR, Seals DR (2017) Nutrition and other lifestyle influences on arterial aging. Ageing Res Rev 39:106–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee D et al (2015) Effects of nutritional components on aging. Aging Cell 14(1):8–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lei M et al (2016) Soluble Aβ oligomers impair hippocampal LTP by disrupting glutamatergic/GABAergic balance. Neurobiol Dis 85:111–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lesné S et al (2005) NMDA receptor activation inhibits α-secretase and promotes neuronal amyloid-β production. J Neurosci 25(41):9367–9377PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li YM, Dickson DW (1997) Enhanced binding of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) by the ApoE4 isoform links the mechanism of plaque deposition in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Lett 226(3):155–158PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. López-Miranda J et al (2010) Olive oil and health: summary of the II international conference on olive oil and health consensus report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20(4):284–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Luchsinger JA, Mayeux R (2004) Dietary factors and Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet Neurology 3(10):579–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ma D et al (2018) Ketogenic diet enhances neurovascular function with altered gut microbiome in young healthy mice. 8(1):6670Google Scholar
  43. Manach C et al (2017) Addressing the inter-individual variation in response to consumption of plant food bioactives: towards a better understanding of their role in healthy aging and cardiometabolic risk reduction. Mol Nutr Food Res 61(6):1600557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mandel SA et al (2012) Molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective/neurorescue action of multi-target green tea polyphenols. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 4:581–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mattson MP (2004) Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 430(7000):631PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mohajeri MH, Troesch B, Weber P (2015) Inadequate supply of vitamins and DHA in the elderly: implications for brain aging and Alzheimer-type dementia. Nutrition 31(2):261–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Monacelli F et al (2017) Vitamin C, aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Nutrients 9(7):670PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Morris MC et al (2004) Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and of cognitive decline. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75(8):1093–1099PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morris MC et al (2005) Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change. Am J Clin Nutr 81(2):508–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Münch G et al (1998) Alzheimer’s disease–synergistic effects of glucose deficit, oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. J Neural Transm 105(4–5):439–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nualart F et al (2014) Vitamin C transporters, recycling and the bystander effect in the nervous system: SVCT2 versus gluts. J Stem Cell Res Ther 4(5):209PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paddon-Jones D et al (2008) Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging. Am J Clin Nutr 87(5):1562S–1566SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prinelli F et al (2015) Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle factors in relation to 20-year all-cause mortality: a cohort study in an Italian population. Br J Nutr 113(6):1003–1011PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Prins M, Fujima L, Hovda D (2005) Age-dependent reduction of cortical contusion volume by ketones after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci Res 82(3):413–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Puchowicz MA et al (2008) Neuroprotection in diet-induced ketotic rat brain after focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28(12):1907–1916PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rajaram S et al (2016) The walnuts and healthy aging study (WAHA): protocol for a nutritional intervention trial with walnuts on brain aging. Front Aging Neurosci 8:333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Rajaram S et al (2017) The Walnuts and Healthy Aging Study (WAHA): protocol for a nutritional intervention trial with walnuts on brain aging. Front Aging Neurosci 8:333PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rodríguez JL, Qizilbash N, López-Arrieta J (2001) Thiamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2Google Scholar
  59. Seneff S, Wainwright G, Mascitelli L (2011) Nutrition and Alzheimer’s disease: the detrimental role of a high carbohydrate diet. Eur J Intern Med 22(2):134–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shakersain B et al (2016) Prudent diet may attenuate the adverse effects of Western diet on cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement 12(2):100–109PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Shih P-H et al (2010) Antioxidant and cognitive promotion effects of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus atropurpurea L.) on senescence-accelerated mice and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. J Nutr Biochem 21(7):598–605PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Shlisky J et al (2017) Nutritional considerations for healthy aging and reduction in age-related chronic disease. Adv Nutr (Bethesda, Md) 8(1):17–26Google Scholar
  63. Shuvaev VV et al (2001) Increased protein glycation in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer’s disease2. Neurobiol Aging 22(3):397–402PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Simpson SJ et al (2017) Dietary protein, aging and nutritional geometry. Ageing Res Rev 39:78–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Solfrizzi V et al (2017) Relationships of dietary patterns, foods, and micro- and macronutrients with Alzheimer’s disease and late-life cognitive disorders: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis 59(3):815–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Suzuki R et al (2010) Diabetes and insulin in regulation of brain cholesterol metabolism. Cell Metab 12(6):567–579PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thapa A, Carroll NJ (2017) Dietary modulation of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Mol Sci 18:7Google Scholar
  68. Tiwari R et al (2018) Herbal Immunomodulators-a remedial panacea for designing and developing effective drugs and medicines: current scenario and future prospects. Curr Drug Metab 19(3):264–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Travassos M et al (2015) Does caffeine consumption modify cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β levels in patients with Alzheimer’s disease? J Alzheimers Dis 47(4):1069–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Van der Auwera I et al (2005) A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Nutr Metab 2(1):28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. vel Szic KS et al (2015) From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition. Clin Epigenetics 7(1):33PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Wengreen H et al (2013) Prospective study of dietary approaches to stop hypertension- and mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County study on memory, health and aging. Am J Clin Nutr 98(5):1263–1271PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Willcox BJ et al (2007) Caloric restriction, the traditional Okinawan diet, and healthy aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1114(1):434–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xu X et al (2015) Tofu intake is associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China. J Alzheimers Dis 43(2):669–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhang J et al (2016) The neuroprotective properties of Hericium erinaceus in glutamate-damaged differentiated PC12 cells and an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. Int J Mol Sci 17(11):1810PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhao L, Chen Q, Brinton RD (2002) Neuroprotective and neurotrophic efficacy of phytoestrogens in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exp Biol Med 227(7):509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammed Bule
    • 1
  • Muhammad Ajmal Shah
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ahmed Abdulahi Abdurahman
    • 3
  • Malik Saad Ullah
    • 4
  • Shahid Shah
    • 5
  • Adnan Amin
    • 6
  • Kamal Niaz
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health SciencesAmbo UniversityAmboEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Food and Nutrition Society of Ethiopia (FoNSE)Addis AbabaEthiopia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  6. 6.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of PharmacyGomal UniversityDera Ismail KhanPakistan
  7. 7.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyFaculty of Bio-Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CUVAS)BahawalpurPakistan

Personalised recommendations