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Alzheimer’s: A Progressive Brain Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

  • Fakhra Amin
  • Anas Shamsi
  • Muhammad Nadeem Asghar
  • Peerzada Shariq Shaheen Khaki
  • Mohd Shahnawaz Khan
  • Shams Tabrez
  • Syed Kashif Zaidi
  • Wajihullah Khan
  • Bilqees Bano
Chapter

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irretrievable, mysterious, and devastating neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Specifically, AD patients suffer from poor thinking skills and lack potential to perform simple activities. Dementia is multifactorial disorder and considered as the main cause of AD. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of large quantities of two remarkable structures, i.e., amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles which are the hallmarks of AD. Both of these structures are misfolded proteins and thought to play an important role in the degeneracy of neurons, ultimately leading to most of AD symptoms. Another common feature of AD is the wrecking of intracellular connections which results in reduced cell function and cell death. Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted fibers which are found inside the neurons and are produced by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein, i.e., tau. Smoking and obesity are the putative risk factors for dementia and cardiovascular disease. Deficiency of vitamins, especially thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), folate (B9), and cobalamin (B12), is associated with cognitive dysfunction and AD. Type-2 diabetes (T2D) and prediabetic insulin resistance have also been suggested as the risk factors for cerebrovascular injury and cognitive decline, eventually leading to dementia. Cognitive impairment in T2D is caused by deposits of amylin, an amyloidogenic hormone synthesized and cosecreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells. The menace of AD can be lowered down by certain anti-inflammatory drugs, proper intake of vitamin B, nurturing physical and leisure activities. In addition, AD can also be controlled by decreasing the candidate risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Anti-amyloid approaches such as vaccination may provide a promising tool to establish safer therapeutic approaches.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s Dementia Amyloid plague Tau proteins Neurofibrillary tangles 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We greatly acknowledge facility provided by Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; University of Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Canada; King Fahd Medical Research Center (KFMRC), Jeddah; King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for carrying out this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fakhra Amin
    • 1
  • Anas Shamsi
    • 2
  • Muhammad Nadeem Asghar
    • 3
  • Peerzada Shariq Shaheen Khaki
    • 2
  • Mohd Shahnawaz Khan
    • 4
  • Shams Tabrez
    • 5
    • 6
  • Syed Kashif Zaidi
    • 7
  • Wajihullah Khan
    • 1
  • Bilqees Bano
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  3. 3.Department of Medical BiologyUniversity of QuebecTrois RiveresCanada
  4. 4.Protein Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.King Fahd Medical Research CenterKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  7. 7.Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine ResearchKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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