Advertisement

Potentials and Limitations of Soil Carbon Modelling: Implications in Indian Conditions

  • Sangeeta Lenka
  • Narendra Kumar Lenka
  • Monoranjan Mohanty
  • Jayant Kumar Saha
  • Ashok Kumar Patra
Chapter

Abstract

Soil is the largest reservoir of C in terrestrial ecosystem and any change in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is reflected in the soil–atmosphere CO2 exchange. Soil organic carbon is an integral component of soil organic matter (SOM) that plays an important role in maintaining and sustaining ecosystem functions and soil productivity. Understanding the dynamics of SOC is important to maintain SOC stocks in soil and to sustain crop yield. An accurate estimate of the change in SOC dynamics is also essential in the wake of fast-changing climate and global warming. The direct impact of climate change is on net primary productivity which is a key driver in SOC dynamics. This change in net primary productivity and soil management would alter SOC dynamics. Several researchers have attempted to simulate the SOC dynamics through building process-based SOC models at different scales like microsites, regional and global. Modelling the dynamics of SOC in the soil is complicated by the fact of numerous controls on SOC mineralization. The challenge lies in calibrating and validating these SOC models for Indian condition which has different soil types, vegetation, and climate. This chapter is aimed to discuss the potentials and limitations of using different SOC models in India with a brief on the importance of SOC and their controls.

Keywords

Soil carbon turnover Soil carbon modelling Mean residence time 

References

  1. Aggarwal RK, Kumar P, Power JF (1997) Use of crop residue and manure to conserve water and enhance nutrient availability and pearl millet yields in an arid tropical region. Soil Tillage Res 41:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alamgir M, Campbell MJ, Turton SM, Pert PL, Edwards W, Laurance WF (2016) Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape. Sci Rep 6:30012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Kaisi MM, Yin X (2005) Tillage and crop residue effects on soil carbon and carbon dioxide emission in corn–soybean rotations. J Environ Qual 34(2):437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aryal DR, De Jong BHJ, Mendoza-Vega J, Ochoa-Gaona S, Esparza-Olguín L (2017) Soil organic carbon stocks and soil respiration in tropical secondary forests in southern Mexico. In: Global soil security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bai JB, Xu XL, Song MH, He YT, Jiang J, Shi PL (2011) Effects of temperature and added nitrogen on carbon mineralization in alpine soils on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecol Environ Sci 20:855Google Scholar
  6. Banger K, Toor GS, Biswas A, Sidhu SS, Sudhir K (2010) Soil organic carbon fractions after 16 years of applications of fertilizers and organic manure in a Typic Rhodalfs in semi-arid tropics. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 86:391–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barancikova G (2007) Validation of Roth C model on selected key monitoring localities. Vedecke prace VUPOP 29:9–22. (in Slovak)Google Scholar
  8. Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Easter M, Batjes NH, Milne E, Gajbhiye KS, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Paustian K, Williams S, Killian K, Coleman K, Falloon P, Powlson DS (2007) Modeled soil organic carbon stocks and changes in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India from 1980 to 2030. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122:84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Williams S, Telpande BA, Deshmukh AS, Chandran P, Ray SK, Mandal C, Easter M, Paustian K (2010) Evaluating the century C model using two long-term fertilizer trials representing humid and semi-arid sites from India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139:264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhattacharyya T, Pal DK, Deshmukh AS, Deshmukh RR, Ray SK, Chandran P, Mandal C, Telpande B, Nimje AM, Tiwary P (2011) Evaluation of Roth C model using four long term fertilizer experiments in black soils, India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 144:222–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonan GB, Hartman MD, Parton WJ, Wieder WR (2013) Evaluating litter decomposition in earth system models with long-term litterbag experiments: an example using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM 4). Glob Chang Biol 19(3):957–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boone RD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Canary JD, Kaye JP (1998) Roots exert a strong influence on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Nature 396(6711):570–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brady NC, Weil RR (2002) The nature and properties of soils, 14th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River/Columbus/, p 965Google Scholar
  14. Buyanovsky GA, Kucera CL, Wagner GH (1987) Comparative analyses of carbon dynamics in native and cultivated ecosystems. Ecology 68:2023–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Campbell CA, Biederbeck VO, Zentner RP, Lafond GP (1991) Effect of crop rotations and cultural practices on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and respiration in a thin black Chernozem. Can J Soil Sci 71(3):363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaplin-Kramer R, Ramler I, Sharp R, Haddad NM, Gerber JS, West PC, Mandle L, Engstrom P, Baccini A, Sim S, Mueller C (2015) Degradation in carbon stocks near tropical forest edges. Nature Commun 6:10158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng K, Ogle SM, Parton WJ, Pan G (2014) Simulating greenhouse gas mitigation potentials for Chinese croplands using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Glob Chang Biol 20:948962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chertov OG, Komarov AS, Nadporozhskaya M, Bykhovets SS, Zudin SL (2001) ROMUL- A model of forest soil organic matter dynamics as a substantial tool for forest ecosystem modeling. Ecol Model 138(1):289–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Christensen BT (1996) Matching measurable soil organic matter fractions with conceptual pools in simulation models of carbon turnover. In: Powlson DS, Smith P, Smith JU (eds) Evaluation of soil organic matter models using long-term datasets, NATO ASI series 1: global environmental change, vol 38. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coleman K, Jenkinson DS (1996) Roth C-26.3-A Model for the turnover of carbon in soil. In: Evaluation of soil organic matter models. Springer, Berlin, pp 237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coleman K, Jenkinson DS, Crocker GJ, Grace PR, Klir J, Korschens M, Poulton PR, Richter DD (1997) Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using RothC-26.3. Geoderma 81:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davidson EA, Janssens IA (2006) Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature 440(7081):165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davidson E, Belk E, Boone RD (1998) Soil water content and temperature as independent or confounded factors controlling soil respiration in a temperate mixed hardwood forest. Glob Chang Biol 4(2):217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diels J, Vanlauwe B, Van der Meersch MK, Sanginga N, Merckx R (2004) Long-term soil organic carbon dynamics in a subhumid tropical climate: 13C data in mixed C3/C4 cropping and modeling with ROTHC. Soil Biol Biochem 36(11):1739–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Easter M, Paustian K, Killian K, Williams S, Feng T, Al-Adamat R, Batjes NH, Bernoux M, Bhattacharyya T, Cerri CC, Cerri CEP (2007) The GEFSOC soil carbon modelling system: a tool for conducting regional-scale soil carbon inventories and assessing the impacts of land use change on soil carbon. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122(1):13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eckersten H, Beier C (1998) Comparison of N and C dynamics in two Norway spruce stands using a process oriented simulation model. Environ Pollut 102(1):395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Falloon P, Smith P (2002) Simulating SOC changes in long-term experiments with Roth C and CENTURY: model evaluation for a regional scale application. Soil Use Manag 18:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Giardina CP, Ryan MG (2000) Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature 404(6780):858–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goll DS, Brovkin V, Parida BR, Reick CH, Kattge J, Reich PB, Van Bodegom PM, Niinemets Ü (2012) Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Biogeosciences 9:3547–3569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grant RF, Rochette P (1994) Soil microbial respiration at different water potentials and temperatures: theory and mathematical modeling. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58(6):1681–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta S, Kumar S (2017) Simulating climate change impact on soil erosion using RUSLE model− a case study in a watershed of mid-Himalayan landscape. J Earth Syst Sci 126(3):43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harden JW, Trumbore SE, Stocks BJ, Hirsch A, Gower ST, O’neill KP, Kasischke ES (2000) The role of fire in the boreal carbon budget. Glob Chang Biol 6(S1):174–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Havlin JL, Kissel DE, Maddux LD, Claassen MM, Long JH (1990) Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:448–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoyle FC, Baldock JA, Murphy D (2011) Soil organic carbon- role in rainfed farming systems. In: Tow P, Cooper I, Partridge I, Birch C (eds) Rainfed farming systems. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 339–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jenkinson DS (1990) The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Phil Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 329:361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jenkinson DS, Coleman K (1994) Calculating the annual input of organic matter to soil from measurements of total organic carbon and radiocarbon. Eur J Soil Sci 45:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jenkinson DS, Hart PBS, Rayner JH, Parry LC (1987) Modelling the turnover of organic matter in long-term experiments at Rothamsted. INTECOL Bull 15:1–8Google Scholar
  38. Jenkinson DS, Harkness DD, Vance ED, Adams DE, Harrison AF (1992) Calculating net primary production and annual input of organic matter to soil from the amount and radiocarbon content of soil organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 24:295–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jenny H (1980) The soil resource- origin and behavior. Springer, New York, p 377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnston CA, Groffman P, Breshears DD, Cardon ZG, Currie W, Emanuel W, Gaudinski J, Jackson RB, Lajtha K, Nadelhoffer K, Nelson D (2004) Carbon cycling in soil. Front Ecol Environ 2(10):522–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kamoni PT, Gicheru PT, Wokabi SM, Easter M, Milne E, Coleman K, Falloon P, Paustian K (2007) Predicted soil organic carbon stocks and changes in Kenya between 1990 and 2030. Agric Ecosyst Environ 122(1):105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kelly RH, Parton WJ, Crocker GJ, Grace PR, Klir J, Ko’rschens M, Poulton PR, Richter DD (1997) Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the century model. Geoderma 81:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Koarashi J, Atarashi-Andoh M, Ishizuka S, Miura S, Saito T, Hirai K (2009) Quantitative aspects of heterogeneity in soil organic matter dynamics in a cool temperate Japanese beech forest: a radio carbon based approach. Glob Chang Biol 5:631–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kusumo BH, Hedley MJ, Hedley CB, Tuohy MP (2011) Measuring carbon dynamics in field soils using soil spectral reflectance: prediction of maize root density, soil organic carbon and nitrogen content. Plant Soil 338:233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lal R (1997) Residue management, conservation tillage and soil restoration for mitigating greenhouse effect by CO2 – enrichment. Soil Tillage Res 43:81–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lenka NK, Lal R (2013) Soil aggregation and greenhouse gas flux after 15 years of wheat straw and fertilizer management in a no-till system. Soil Tillage Res 126:78–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lenka S, Singh AK, Lenka NK (2014) Soil aggregation and organic carbon as affected by different irrigation and nitrogen levels in maize–wheat cropping system. Exp Agric 50:216–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lenka S, Lenka NK, Singh AB, Singh B, Raghuwanshi J (2017) Global warming potential and greenhouse gas emission under different soil nutrient management practices in soybean–wheat system of Central India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:4603-4612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liski J, Perruchoud D, Karjalainen T (2002) Increasing carbon stocks in the forest soils of western Europe. For Ecol Manag 169(1):159–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liski J, Lehtonen A, Palosuo T, Peltoniemi M, Eggers T, Muukkonen P, Mäkipää R (2006) Carbon accumulation in Finland’s forests 1922-2004–an estimate obtained by combination of forest inventory data with modelling of biomass, litter and soil. Ann For Sci 63(7):687–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ludwig B, Schultz E, Rethemeyer J, Merbach I, Flessa H (2007) Predictive modeling of C dynamics in the long-term fertilization experiment at bad Lauchstadt with the Rothamsted carbon model. Eur J Soil Sci 58:1155–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lugato E, Paustian K, Giardini L (2007) Modelling soil organic carbon dynamics in two long-term experiments of North-Eastern Italy. Agric Ecosyst Environ 120:423–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lynch MJ, Mulvaney MJ, Hodges SC, Thompson TL, Thomason WE (2016) Decomposition, nitrogen and carbon mineralization from food and cover crop residues in the central plateau of Haiti. Springer Plus 5(1):973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Manlay RJ, Feller C, Swift MJ (2007) Historical evolution of soil organic matter concepts and their relationships with the fertility and sustainability of cropping systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 119(3):217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marañón-Jiménez S, Soong JL, Leblans NI, Sigurdsson BD, Dauwe S, Fransen E, Janssens IA (2017) Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. EGU Gen Assemb Conf Abstr 19:16746Google Scholar
  57. McCauley A, Jones C, Jacobsen J (2009) Soil pH and organic matter. Nutr Manag Modul 8:1–12Google Scholar
  58. Murphy BW (2015) Impact of soil organic matter on soil properties- a review with emphasis on Australian soils. Soil Res 53:605–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ngo KM, Lum S (2018) Aboveground biomass estimation of tropical street trees. J Urban Ecol 4(1):20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ogle SM, Paustian K (2005) Soil organic carbon as an indicator of environmental quality at the national scale: inventory monitoring methods and policy relevance. Can J Soil Sci 85(special issue):531–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Olson JS (1963) Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parton WJ, Schimel DS, Cole CV, Ojima DS (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grassland. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1173–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parton WJ, Stewart JWB, Cole CV (1988) Dynamics of C, N, P and S in grassland soils: a model. Biogeochemistry 5:109–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, Gilmanov TG, Scholes RJ, Schimel DS, Kirchner T, Menaut JC, Seastedt T, Garcia-Moya E, Kamnalrut A, Kinyamario JI (1993) Observation and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 7:785–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Paul EA (1984) Dynamics of organic matter in soils. Plant Soil 76:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Paul EA, Collins HP, Leavitt SW (2001) Dynamics of resistant soil carbon of midwestern agricultural soils measured by naturally occurring C-14 abundance. Geoderma 104:239–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paustian K, Parton WJ, Persson J (1992) Modeling soil organic matter in organic-amended and N-fertilized long-term plots. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:476–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paustian K, Collins HP, Paul EA (1997) Management controls on soil carbon. In: Paul EA, Paustian K, Elliott ET, Cole CV (eds) Soil organic matter in temperate agroecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 15–49Google Scholar
  69. Peltoniemi M, Thürig E, Ogle S, Palosuo T, Schrump M, Wutzler T, Butterbach-Bahl K, Chertov O, Komarov A, Mikhailov A, Gärdenäs A (2007) Models in country scale carbon accounting of forest soils. Silva Fennica 41(3):575–602Google Scholar
  70. Plant S, Ii NA (2017) Review : stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter : implications for C-saturation of soils. Stabilization 241:155–176. Springer Stable : http://www.jstor.org/stable/24122556 Google Scholar
  71. Post WM, Kwon KC (2000) Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential. Glob Chang Biol 6(3):317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pregitzer KS, Laskowski MJ, Burton AJ, Lessard VC, Zak DR (1998) Variation in sugar maple root respiration with root diameter and soil depth. Tree Physiol 18(10):665–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raich JW, Potter CS (1995) Global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from soils. Global Biogeochem Cycles 9(1):23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Raich JW, Tufekciogul A (2000) Vegetation and soil respiration: correlations and controls. Biogeochemistry 48(1):71–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rey A, Petsikos C, Jarvis PG, Grace J (2005) Effect of temperature and moisture on rates of carbon mineralization in a Mediterranean oak forest soil under controlled and field conditions. Eur J Soil Sci 56:589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rousk K, Michelsen A, Rousk J (2016) Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments. Glob Chang Biol 22(12):4150–4161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ryan MG, Law BE (2005) Interpreting, measuring and modeling soil respiration. Biogeochemistry 73(1):3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sagliker HA (2009) Effects of trifluralin on soil carbon mineralization at different temperature conditions. Eur J Soil Sci 45:473Google Scholar
  79. Saxton K, Rawls W (2006) Soil water characteristic estimates by texture and organic matter for hydrologic solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1569–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schimel JP, Weintraub MN (2003) The implications of exoenzyme activity on microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil: a theoretical model. Soil Biol Biochem 35(4):549–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sierra CA, del Valle JI, Orrego SA, Moreno FH, Harmon ME, Zapata M, Colorado GJ, Herrera MA, Lara W, Restrepo DE, Berrouet LM, Loaiza LM, Benjumea JF (2007) Total carbon stocks in a tropical forest landscape of the Porce region, Colombia. For Ecol Manag 243:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Six J, Jastrow JD (2002) Organic matter turnover. In: Encyclopedia of soil science. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 936–942Google Scholar
  83. Smith P, Smith JU, Powlson DS, McGill WB, Arah JRM, Chertov OG, Coleman K, Franko U, Frolking S, Jenkinson DS, Jensen LS, Kelly RHM, Klein-Gunnewiek H, Komarov AS, Li C, Molina JAE, Mueller T, Parton WJ, Thorney JHM, Whitmore AP (1997) A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments. Geoderma 81:153–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith P, Fang C, Dawson JJC, Moncrieff JB (2008) Impact of global warming on soil organic carbon. Adv Agron 97:1–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stevenson FJ (1994) Humus Chemistry, Concepts, Composition, Reactions. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Taghizadeh-Toosi A, Christensen BT, Hutchings NJ, Vejlin J, Kätterer T, Glendining M, Olesen JE (2014) C-TOOL: a simple model for simulating whole-profile carbon storage in temperate agricultural soils. Ecol Model 292:11–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thornton PE, Doney SC, Lindsay K, Moore JK, Mahowald N, Randerson JT, Fung I, Lamarque JF, Feddema JJ, Lee YH (2009) Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Biogeosciences 6(10):2099–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tian H, Chen G, Zhang C, Melillo JM, Hall CA (2010) Pattern and variation of C: N: P ratios in China’s soils: a synthesis of observational data. Biogeochemistry 98(1–3):139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Todd-Brown KE, Randerson JT, Post WM, Hoffman FM, Tarnocai C, Schuur EA, Allison SD (2013) Causes of variation in soil carbon simulations from CMIP5 earth system models and comparison with observations. Biogeosciences 10(3):1717–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tranter G, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Murphy B, McKenzie NJ, Grundy M (2007) Building and testing conceptual and empirical models for predicting soil bulk density. Soil Use Manag 23:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Trumbore SE (1993) Comparison of carbon dynamics in tropical and temperate soils using radiocarbon measurements. Global Biogeochem Cycles 7:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trumbore SE (1997) Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental change. Proc Natl Acad Sci 94(16):8284–8291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tuomi M, Thum T, Järvinen H, Fronzek S, Berg B, Harmon M, Trofymow JA, Sevanto S, Liski J (2009) Leaf litter decomposition—estimates of global variability based on Yasso07 model. Ecol Model 220(23):3362–3371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tuomi M, Rasinmäki J, Repo A, Vanhala P, Liski J (2011) Soil carbon model Yasso07 graphical user interface. Environ Model Softw 26(11):1358–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vereecken H, Maes J, Feyen J, Darius P (1989) Estimating the soil moisture retention characteristic from texture, bulk density, and carbon content. Soil Sci 148:389–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wang XW, Li XZ, Hu YM, Lv JJ, Sun J, Li ZM, Wu ZF (2010) Effect of temperature and moisture on soil organic carbon mineralization of predominantly permafrost peatland in the great Hing’an mountains, northeastern China. J Environ Sci 22:1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang YK, Fang SZ, Tian Y, Tang LZ (2012) Influence of residue composition and addition frequencies on carbon mineralization and microbial biomass in the soils of agroforestry systems. Acta Ecol Sin 32:7239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wattel-Koekkoek EJW, Buurman P, van der Plicht J, Wattel E, van Breemen N (2003) Mean residence time of soil organic matter associated with kaolinite and smectite. Eur J Soil Sci 54:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weynants M, Vereecken H, Javaux M (2009) Revisiting Vereecken pedo transfer functions: introducing a closed-form hydraulic model. Vadose Zone J 8:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wosten JHM, Lilly A, Nemes A, Le Bas C (1999) Development and use of a database of hydraulic properties of European soils. Geoderma 90:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zaehle S, Sitch S, Smith B, Hatterman F (2005) Effects of parameter uncertainties on the modeling of terrestrial biosphere dynamics. Global Biogeochem Cycles 19:GB3020.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang W, Gao M, Wang H, Zheng JB (2009) Effects of temperature and crop residues on the mineralization of organic carbon in purple paddy soil. Plant Nutr Fertil Sci 15:578Google Scholar
  103. Zimmermann M, Leifeld J, Schmidt MWI, Smith P, Fuhrer J (2007) Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the Roth C model. Eur J Soil Sci 58:658–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangeeta Lenka
    • 1
  • Narendra Kumar Lenka
    • 1
  • Monoranjan Mohanty
    • 1
  • Jayant Kumar Saha
    • 1
  • Ashok Kumar Patra
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations