Climate Change and Farmers’ Adaptation: Extension and Capacity Building of Smallholder Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Urban B. Kalimba
  • Richard J. CulasEmail author


The efforts to reduce impacts of climate change have been taken by many African countries especially those which are highly exposed to the changing climatic condition and weather extremes. Many attempts have been directed in agriculture to adapt to climate change as agriculture is the main source of economy and livelihoods of the large population in these countries. Extension services, in particular, have been at the centre of the efforts taken by governments to build farmers’ adaptation capacity for the impacts of climate change. This chapter reviews and analyses the current level of extension practices and the capacity building of smallholders farmers with specific reference to Tanzania and other countries such as Senegal, Malawi and Kenya. In particular, this chapter will look at how farmers can be adaptable to climate-smart agriculture (CSA) technologies. In doing so, this chapter will look at what extent climate change affects the agriculture sector of Tanzania, assess the CSA technologies’ and practices’ adaptation in the farming activities and examine extension approaches/methods being used to address the agricultural challenges in Tanzania and also in relation to the lessons learned from the other African countries (Senegal, Malawi and Kenya).


Climate-smart agriculture Smallholder farmers Climate resilience Adaptation Agricultural extension Participatory approach Capacity building Tanzania Sub-Saharan Africa 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agriculture and CooperativesIringa District CouncilIringaTanzania
  2. 2.School of Agricultural and Wine SciencesCharles Sturt UniversityOrangeAustralia

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