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The Importance of Endophytic Fungi from the Medicinal Plant: Diversity, Natural Bioactive Compounds, and Control of Plant Pathogens

  • Laith Khalil Tawfeeq Al-Ani
Chapter
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 15)

Abstract

Endophyte fungi are amazing organisms with the ability to grow inside the host plant, particularly the medicinal plant, without any side effects on the plant tissues. These endophyte fungi can colonize and proliferate without causing any damage to the tissues of the medicinal plant, although many of the fungi genera are isolated from the medicinal plants that can cause the diseases for the plants directly or for animals and human indirectly. But some endophytic fungi genera are using a biocontrol agent with other benefits. Here, the diversity of endophytic fungi was about 180 genera. Also, I suggested a simple equation for displaying the fungi genera available among isolates of endophyte fungi from the medicinal plants. 180 genera of endophytic fungi into three levels including low, middle, and high levels depending on the equation that determined the importance of some fungi genera of from other fungi. These fungi comprised Trichoderma, Curvularia, Pestalotiopsis, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, Phomopsis, Diaporthe, Phoma, Penicillium, Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, and Aspergillus. The roles of endophyte fungi are shown in various fields such as producing (A) antibiotics against many microbes, (B) mycotoxins, (C) anticancer, (D) insecticides, (E) enzymes, and (F) many compounds used in different fields. Also, endophyte fungi are able to change the chemistry of medicinal plant and control of plant pathogens. Endophyte fungi of a group the dark septate endophytes (DSE) detected that are able to play an important role by producing very interesting compounds. The conclusion is 13 fungi genera more important from others. Many endophyte fungi have displayed the role in producing the natural bioactive products and using to biocontrol of plant pathogens. These fungi can be used to produce natural drugs, biopesticides, and biofertilizers that lead to decrease the dangers of synthetic chemicals. This can save the ecosystem and reduce the chemical residue in the environment.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laith Khalil Tawfeeq Al-Ani
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of plant protection, College of Agriculture engineering scienceUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.School of Biology ScienceUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia

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