Advertisement

Similarity and Difference in Characteristics of Two Diseases, SFTS and CCHF, and Their Causative Agents

  • Masayuki ShimojimaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are caused by two distinct bunyaviruses and show some common characteristics. In this chapter, the author compares characteristics of the two diseases/viruses, hoping that the comparison will merit understanding of the viruses and developing of countermeasures against the diseases.

Keywords

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Bunyavirus Ecology Symptom Pathology Animal model Vaccine Treatment 

References

  1. Altamura LA, Bertolotti-Ciarlet A, Teigler J, Paragas J, Schmaljohn CS, Doms RW (2007) Identification of a novel C-terminal cleavage of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus PreGN that leads to generation of an NSM protein. J Virol 81(12):6632–6642PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson I, Lundkvist A, Haller O, Mirazimi A (2006) Type I interferon inhibits Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in human target cells. J Med Virol 78(2):216–222PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoniadis A, Casals J (1982) Serological evidence of human infection with Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus in Greece. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31(5):1066–1067PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Ascioglu S, Leblebicioglu H, Vahaboglu H, Chan KA (2011) Ribavirin for patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 66(6):1215–1222PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson B, Chamberlain J, Logue CH, Cook N, Bruce C, Dowall SD, Hewson R (2012a) Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12(9):786–793PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson B, Latham J, Chamberlain J, Logue C, O’Donoghue L, Osborne J, Carson G, Brooks T, Carroll M, Jacobs M, Hopkins S, Hewson R (2012b) Sequencing and phylogenetic characterisation of a fatal Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever case imported into the United Kingdom, October 2012. Euro Surveill 17(48):pii: 20327Google Scholar
  7. Bakir M, Engin A, Gozel MG, Elaldi N, Kilickap S, Cinar Z (2012) A new perspective to determine the severity of cases with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Vector Borne Dis 49(2):105–110PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bao CJ, Guo XL, Qi X, Hu JL, Zhou MH, Varma JK, Cui LB, Yang HT, Jiao YJ, Klena JD, Li LX, Tao WY, Li X, Chen Y, Zhu Z, Xu K, Shen AH, Wu T, Peng HY, Li ZF, Shan J, Shi ZY, Wang H (2011) A family cluster of infections by a newly recognized bunyavirus in eastern China, 2007: further evidence of person-to-person transmission. Clin Infect Dis 53(12):1208–1214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnwal B, Karlberg H, Mirazimi A, Tan YJ (2016) The non-structural protein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential and induces apoptosis. J Biol Chem 291(2):582–592PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bente DA, Alimonti JB, Shieh WJ, Camus G, Ströher U, Zaki S, Jones SM (2010) Pathogenesis and immune response of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a STAT-1 knockout mouse model. J Virol 84(21):11089–11100PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bente DA, Forrester NL, Watts DM, McAuley AJ, Whitehouse CA, Bray M (2013) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antivir Res 100(1):159–189PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bereczky S, Lindegren G, Karlberg H, Akerström S, Klingström J, Mirazimi A (2010) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection is lethal for adult type I interferon receptor-knockout mice. J Gen Virol 91(Pt 6):1473–1477PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergeron E, Albariño CG, Khristova ML, Nichol ST (2010) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-encoded ovarian tumor protease activity is dispensable for virus RNA polymerase function. J Virol 84(1):216–226PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bertolotti-Ciarlet A, Smith J, Strecker K, Paragas J, Altamura LA, McFalls JM, Frias-Stäheli N, García-Sastre A, Schmaljohn CS, Doms RW (2005) Cellular localization and antigenic characterization of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoproteins. J Virol 79(10):6152–6161PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bodur H, Akinci E, Ongürü P, Uyar Y, Baştürk B, Gözel MG, Kayaaslan BU (2010) Evidence of vascular endothelial damage in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Int J Infect Dis 14(8):e704–e707PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Burt FJ, Swanepoel R, Shieh WJ, Smith JF, Leman PA, Greer PW, Coffield LM, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Zaki SR (1997) Immunohistochemical and in situ localization of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in human tissues and implications for CCHF pathogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121(8):839–846PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Burt FJ, Paweska JT, Ashkettle B, Swanepoel R (2009) Genetic relationship in southern African Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus isolates: evidence for occurrence of reassortment. Epidemiol Infect 137(9):1302–1308PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Buttigieg KR, Dowall SD, Findlay-Wilson S, Miloszewska A, Rayner E, Hewson R, Carroll MW (2014) A novel vaccine against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever protects 100% of animals against lethal challenge in a mouse model. PLoS One 9(3):e91516Google Scholar
  19. Canakoglu N, Berber E, Tonbak S, Ertek M, Sozdutmaz I, Aktas M, Kalkan A, Ozdarendeli A (2015) Immunization of knock-out α/β interferon receptor mice against high lethal dose of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus with a cell culture based vaccine. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(3):e0003579PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carter SD, Surtees R, Walter CT, Ariza A, Bergeron É, Nichol ST, Hiscox JA, Edwards TA, Barr JN (2012) Structure, function, and evolution of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsid protein. J Virol 86(20):10914–10923PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chamberlain J, Cook N, Lloyd G, Mioulet V, Tolley H, Hewson R (2005) Co-evolutionary patterns of variation in small and large RNA segments of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Gen Virol 86(Pt 12):3337–3341PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen S (2013) Molecular evolution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus based on complete genomes. J Gen Virol 94(Pt 4):843–850PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen XP, Cong ML, Li MH, Kang YJ, Feng YM, Plyusnin A, Xu J, Zhang YZ (2012) Infection and pathogenesis of Huaiyangshan virus (a novel tick-borne bunyavirus) in laboratory rodents. J Gen Virol 93(Pt 6):1288–1293PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen H, Hu K, Zou J, Xiao J (2013) A cluster of cases of human-to-human transmission caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus. Int J Infect Dis 17(3):e206–e208PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Chisholm K, Dueger E, Fahmy NT, Samaha HA, Zayed A, Abdel-Dayem M, Villinski JT (2012) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks from imported livestock, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis 18(1):181–182PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi SJ, Park SW, Bae IG, Kim SH, Ryu SY, Kim HA, Jang HC, Hur J, Jun JB, Jung Y, Chang HH, Kim YK, Yi J, Kim KH, Hwang JH, Kim YS, Jeong HW, Song KH, Park WB, Kim ES, Oh MD, for Korea SFTS Clinical Network (2016) Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in South Korea, 2013–2015. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(12):e0005264PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Connolly-Andersen AM, Douagi I, Kraus AA, Mirazimi A (2009) Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infects human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Virology 390(2):157–162PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Deng B, Zhang S, Geng Y, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Yao W, Wen Y, Cui W, Zhou Y, Gu Q, Wang W, Wang Y, Shao Z, Wang Y, Li C, Wang D, Zhao Y, Liu P (2012) Cytokine and chemokine levels in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. PLoS One 7(7):e41365PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deng B, Zhou B, Zhang S, Zhu Y, Han L, Geng Y, Jin Z, Liu H, Wang D, Zhao Y, Wen Y, Cui W, Zhou Y, Gu Q, Sun C, Lu X, Wang W, Wang Y, Li C, Wang Y, Yao W, Liu P (2013) Clinical features and factors associated with severity and fatality among patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome Bunyavirus infection in Northeast China. PLoS One 8(11):e80802PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Devignot S, Bergeron E, Nichol S, Mirazimi A, Weber F (2015) A virus-like particle system identifies the endonuclease domain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Virol 89(11):5957–5967PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ding F, Zhang W, Wang L, Hu W, Soares Magalhaes RJ, Sun H, Zhou H, Sha S, Li S, Liu Q, Li Q, Yang W, Huang L, Li C, Yin W (2013a) Epidemiologic features of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in China, 2011–2012. Clin Infect Dis 56(11):1682–1683PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Ding NZ, Luo ZF, Niu DD, Ji W, Kang XH, Cai SS, Xu DS, Wang QW, He CQ (2013b) Identification of two severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains originating from reassortment. Virus Res 178(2):543–546PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Ding YP, Liang MF, Ye JB, Liu QH, Xiong CH, Long B, Lin WB, Cui N, Zou ZQ, Song YL, Zhang QF, Zhang S, Liu YZ, Song G, Ren YY, Li SH, Wang Y, Hou FQ, Yu H, Ding P, Ye F, Li DX, Wang GQ (2014) Prognostic value of clinical and immunological markers in acute phase of SFTS virus infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 20(11):O870–O878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Erduran E, Bahadir A, Palanci N, Gedik Y (2013) The treatment of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and fresh frozen plasma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 35(1):e19–e24PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Ergönül O (2006) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Lancet Infect Dis 6(4):203–214PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Ergonul O, Tuncbilek S, Baykam N, Celikbas A, Dokuzoguz B (2006) Evaluation of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 193(7):941–944PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Erturk A, Cure E, Parlak E, Cure MC, Yuce S, Kizilkaya B (2014) Serum resistin levels may be new prognostic factor of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Int J Clin Exp Med 7(10):3536–3542Google Scholar
  38. Estrada DF, De Guzman RN (2011) Structural characterization of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Gn tail provides insight into virus assembly. J Biol Chem 286(24):21678–21686PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Estrada-Peña A, Palomar AM, Santibáñez P, Sánchez N, Habela MA, Portillo A, Romero L, Oteo JA (2012) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks, Southwestern Europe, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18(1):179–180PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fagbami AH, Tomori O, Fabiyi A, Isoun TT (1975) Experimantal Congo virus (Ib -AN 7620) infection in primates. Virologie 26(1):33–37PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Gai Z, Liang M, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Jin C, Wang SW, Sun L, Zhou N, Zhang Q, Sun Y, Ding SJ, Li C, Gu W, Zhang F, Wang Y, Bian P, Li X, Wang Z, Song X, Wang X, Xu A, Bi Z, Chen S, Li D (2012) Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus through blood contact. Clin Infect Dis 54(2):249–252PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garrison AR, Radoshitzky SR, Kota KP, Pegoraro G, Ruthel G, Kuhn JH, Altamura LA, Kwilas SA, Bavari S, Haucke V, Schmaljohn CS (2013) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus utilizes a clathrin- and early endosome-dependent entry pathway. Virology 444(1–2):45–54PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Garrison AR, Shoemaker CJ, Golden JW, Fitzpatrick CJ, Suschak JJ, Richards MJ, Badger CV, Six CM, Martin JD, Hannaman D, Zivcec M, Bergeron E, Koehler JW, Schmaljohn CS (2017) A DNA vaccine for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever protects against disease and death in two lethal mouse models. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(9):e0005908PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ghiasi SM, Salmanian AH, Chinikar S, Zakeri S (2011) Mice orally immunized with a transgenic plant expressing the glycoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18(12):2031–2037PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Gonzalez JP, Camicas JL, Cornet JP, Faye O, Wilson ML (1992) Sexual and transovarian transmission of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Hyalomma truncatum ticks. Res Virol 143(1):23–28PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Gowen BB, Westover JB, Miao J, Van Wettere AJ, Rigas JD, Hickerson BT, Jung KH, Li R, Conrad BL, Nielson S, Furuta Y, Wang Z (2017) Modeling severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in golden syrian hamsters: importance of STAT2 in preventing disease and effective treatment with favipiravir. J Virol 91(3):e01942-1691Google Scholar
  47. Guo X, Zhang L, Zhang W, Chi Y, Zeng X, Li X, Qi X, Jin Q, Zhang X, Huang M, Wang H, Chen Y, Bao C, Hu J, Liang S, Bao L, Wu T, Zhou M, Jiao Y (2013) Human antibody neutralizes severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, an emerging hemorrhagic fever virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20(9):1426–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guo CT, Lu QB, Ding SJ, Hu CY, Hu JG, Wo Y, Fan YD, Wang XJ, Qin SL, Cui N, Yang ZD, Zhang XA, Liu W, Cao WC (2016) Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China: an integrated data analysis. Epidemiol Infect 144(6):1345–1354PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. He CQ, Ding NZ (2012) Discovery of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus strains originating from intragenic recombination. J Virol 86(22):12426–12430PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hewson R, Gmyl A, Gmyl L, Smirnova SE, Karganova G, Jamil B, Hasan R, Chamberlain J, Clegg C (2004) Evidence of segment reassortment in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. J Gen Virol 85(Pt 10):3059–3070PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinkula J, Devignot S, Åkerström S, Karlberg H, Wattrang E, Bereczky S, Mousavi-Jazi M, Risinger C, Lindegren G, Vernersson C, Paweska J, van Vuren PJ, Blixt O, Brun A, Weber F, Mirazimi A (2017) Immunization with DNA plasmids coding for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus capsid and envelope proteins and/or virus-like particles induces protection and survival in challenged mice. J Virol 91(10):e02076-16Google Scholar
  52. Hiraki T, Yoshimitsu M, Suzuki T, Goto Y, Higashi M, Yokoyama S, Tabuchi T, Futatsuki T, Nakamura K, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Kakihana Y, Arima N, Yonezawa S (2014) Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: a pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS. Pathol Int 64(11):569–575.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Honig JE, Osborne JC, Nichol ST (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome L RNA segment and encoded protein. Virology 321(1):29–35PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Huang X, Liu LDY, Wu W, Wang H, Su J, Tang X, Liu Q, Yang Y, Jiang Y, Chen W, Xu B (2014) The evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of the fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV) in China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(10):e3237PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jin C, Jiang H, Liang M, Han Y, Gu W, Zhang F, Zhu H, Wu W, Chen T, Li C, Zhang W, Zhang Q, Qu J, Wei Q, Qin C, Li D (2015) SFTS virus infection in nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis 211(6):915–925PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaneko M, Shikata H, Matsukage S, Maruta M, Shinomiya H, Suzuki T, Hasegawa H, Shimojima M, Saijo M (2017) A patient with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-associated involvement of the central nervous system. J Infect Chemother 24(4):292–297PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Karlberg H, Tan YJ, Mirazimi A (2011) Induction of caspase activation and cleavage of the viral nucleocapsid protein in different cell types during Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection. J Biol Chem 286(5):3227–3234PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Karti SS, Odabasi Z, Korten V, Yilmaz M, Sonmez M, Caylan R, Akdogan E, Eren N, Koksal I, Ovali E, Erickson BR, Vincent MJ, Nichol ST, Comer JA, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis 10(8):1379–1384PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kato H, Yamagishi T, Shimada T, Matsui T, Shimojima M, Saijo M, Oishi K, SFTS epidemiological research group-Japan (2016) Epidemiological and clinical features of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan, 2013–2014. PLoS One 11(10):e0165207PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim WY, Choi W, Park SW, Wang EB, Lee WJ, Jee Y, Lim KS, Lee HJ, Kim SM, Lee SO, Choi SH, Kim YS, Woo JH, Kim SH (2015) Nosocomial transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Korea. Clin Infect Dis 60(11):1681–1683PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim N, Kim KH, Lee SJ, Park SH, Kim IS, Lee EY, Yi J (2016a) Bone marrow findings in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: prominent haemophagocytosis and its implication in haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. J Clin Pathol 69(6):537–541PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim UJ, Kim DM, Ahn JH, Kang SJ, Jang HC, Park KH, Jung SI (2016b) Successful treatment of rapidly progressing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with neurological complications using intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid. Antivir Ther 21(7):637–640PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Knipe DM, Howley PM (2013) Fields virology. In: Elliot RM, Schmaljohn CS (eds) Bunyaviridae, 6th edn. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia. 42: 1244–1282Google Scholar
  64. Kortekaas J, Vloet RP, McAuley AJ, Shen X, Bosch BJ, de Vries L, Moormann RJ, Bente DA (2015) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus subunit vaccines induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies but no protection in STAT1 knockout mice. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 15(12):759–764PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Kubar A, Haciomeroglu M, Ozkul A, Bagriacik U, Akinci E, Sener K, Bodur H (2011) Prompt administration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus hyperimmunoglobulin in patients diagnosed with CCHF and viral load monitorization by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Jpn J Infect Dis 64(5):439–443PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Lam TT, Liu W, Bowden TA, Cui N, Zhuang L, Liu K, Zhang YY, Cao WC, Pybus OG (2013) Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Epidemics 5(1):1–10PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li D (2013) A highly pathogenic new bunyavirus emerged in China. Emerg Microbes Infect 2(1):e1Google Scholar
  68. Li W, He YW (2013) Infection with a novel virus causes hemorrhagic fever in China. Int J Infect Dis 17(7):e556–e561PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Li S, Xue C, Fu Y, Wang J, Ding X, Liu R, Lin Z, Chai N, Yang X, Wang Y, Li Y, Zhang Z, Cheng X, Zhang W (2011) Sporadic case infected by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus in a non-epidemic region of China. Biosci Trends 5(6):273–276PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Liu Y, Li Q, Hu W, Wu J, Wang Y, Mei L, Walker DH, Ren J, Wang Y, Yu XJ (2012) Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12(2):156–160PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liu W, Lu QB, Cui N, Li H, Wang LY, Liu K, Yang ZD, Wang BJ, Wang HY, Zhang YY, Zhuang L, Hu CY, Yuan C, Fan XJ, Wang Z, Zhang L, Zhang XA, Walker DH, Cao WC (2013) Case-fatality ratio and effectiveness of ribavirin therapy among hospitalized patients in China who had severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 57(9):1292–1299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu S, Chai C, Wang C, Amer S, Lv H, He H, Sun J, Lin J (2014a) Systematic review of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: virology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics. Rev Med Virol 24(2):90–102PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu Q, He B, Huang SY, Wei F, Zhu XQ (2014b) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis 14(8):763–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu Y, Wu B, Paessler S, Walker DH, Tesh RB, Yu XJ (2014c) The pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in alpha/beta interferon knockout mice: insights into the pathologic mechanisms of a new viral hemorrhagic fever. J Virol 88(3):1781–1786PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu K, Zhou H, Sun RX, Yao HW, Li Y, Wang LP, Mu D, Li XL, Yang Y, Gray GC, Cui N, Yin WW, Fang LQ, Yu HJ, Cao WC (2015) A national assessment of the epidemiology of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, China. Sci Rep 5:9679Google Scholar
  76. Logan TM, Linthicum KJ, Bailey CL, Watts DM, Moulton JR (1989) Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by Hyalomma truncatum Koch. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40(2):207–212PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Lukashev AN (2005) Evidence for recombination in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Gen Virol 86(Pt 8):2333–2338PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Matsuno K, Orba Y, Maede-White K, Scott D, Feldmann F, Liang M, Ebihara H (2017) Animal models of emerging tick-borne phleboviruses: determining target cells in a lethal model of SFTSV infection. Front Microbiol 8:104Google Scholar
  79. Midilli K, Gargili A, Ergonul O, Elevli M, Ergin S, Turan N, Sengöz G, Ozturk R, Bakar M (2009) The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey. BMC Infect Dis 9:90Google Scholar
  80. Mild M, Simon M, Albert J, Mirazimi A (2010) Towards an understanding of the migration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Gen Virol 91(Pt 1):199–207PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Morikawa S, Qing T, Xinqin Z, Saijo M, Kurane I (2002) Genetic diversity of the M RNA segment among Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolates in China. Virology 296(1):159–164PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Mousavi-Jazi M, Karlberg H, Papa A, Christova I, Mirazimi A (2012) Healthy individuals’ immune response to the Bulgarian Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus vaccine. Vaccine 30(44):6225–6229PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Nakano A, Ogawa H, Nakanishi Y, Fujita H, Mahara F, Shiogama K, Tsutsumi Y, Takeichi T (2017) Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a fatal case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Intern Med 56(12):1597–1602PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Negredo A, de la Calle-Prieto F, Palencia-Herrejón E, Mora-Rillo M, Astray-Mochales J, Sánchez-Seco MP, Bermejo Lopez E, Menárguez J, Fernández-Cruz A, Sánchez-Artola B, Keough-Delgado E, Ramírez de Arellano E, Lasala F, Milla J, Fraile JL, Ordobás Gavín M, Martinez de la Gándara A, López Perez L, Diaz-Diaz D, López-García MA, Delgado-Jimenez P, Martín-Quirós A, Trigo E, Figueira JC, Manzanares J, Rodriguez-Baena E, Garcia-Comas L, Rodríguez-Fraga O, García-Arenzana N, Fernández-Díaz MV, Cornejo VM, Emmerich P, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Arribas JR, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever@Madrid Working Group (2017) Autochthonous Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Spain. N Engl J Med 377(2):154–161Google Scholar
  85. Ni H, Yang F, Li Y, Liu W, Jiao S, Li Z, Yi B, Chen Y, Hou X, Hu F, Ding Y, Bian G, Du Y, Xu G, Cao G (2015) Apodemus agrarius is a potential natural host of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS)-causing novel bunyavirus. J Clin Virol 71:82–88PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Oestereich L, Rieger T, Neumann M, Bernreuther C, Lehmann M, Krasemann S, Wurr S, Emmerich P, de Lamballerie X, Ölschläger S, Günther S (2014) Evaluation of antiviral efficacy of ribavirin, arbidol, and T-705 (favipiravir) in a mouse model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(5):e2804PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Oh SS, Chae JB, Kang JG, Kim HC, Chong ST, Shin JH, Hur MS, Suh JH, Oh MD, Jeong SM, Shin NS, Choi KS, Chae JS (2016) Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus from wild animals and ixodidae ticks in the Republic of Korea. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16(6):408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Oh WS, Yoo JR, Kwon KT, Kim HI, Lee SJ, Jun JB, Ryu SY, Kim HA, Hur J, Wi YM, Lim MH, Heo ST (2017) Effect of early plasma exchange on survival in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: a multicenter study. Yonsei Med J 58(4):867–871PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ozturk B, Kuscu F, Tutuncu E, Sencan I, Gurbuz Y, Tuzun H (2010) Evaluation of the association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and VEGF-A with mortality and prognosis in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Clin Virol 47(2):115–119PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Ozturk B, Tutuncu E, Kuscu F, Gurbuz Y, Sencan I, Tuzun H (2012) Evaluation of factors predictive of the prognosis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: new suggestions. Int J Infect Dis 16(2):e89–e93PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Papa A, Christova I, Papadimitriou E, Antoniadis A (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis 10(8):1465–1467PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Papa A, Bino S, Velo E, Harxhi A, Kota M, Antoniadis A (2006) Cytokine levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Clin Virol 36(4):272–276PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Papa A, Papadimitriou E, Christova I (2011) The Bulgarian vaccine Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus strain. Scand J Infect Dis 43(3):225–229PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Papadopoulos O, Koptopoulos G (1980) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Greece: isolation of the virus from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks and a preliminary serological survey. In: Jea V-H (ed) Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, pp 117–121Google Scholar
  95. Park SW, Ryou J, Choi WY, Han MG, Lee WJ (2016) Epidemiological and clinical features of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome during an outbreak in South Korea, 2013–2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95(6):1358–1361PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Plegge T, Hofmann-Winkler H, Spiegel M, Pöhlmann S (2016) Evidence that processing of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus Gn/Gc polyprotein is critical for viral infectivity and requires an internal Gc signal peptide. PLoS One 11(11):e0166013PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Qu B, Qi X, Wu X, Liang M, Li C, Cardona CJ, Xu W, Tang F, Li Z, Wu B, Powell K, Wegner M, Li D, Xing Z (2012) Suppression of the interferon and NF-κB responses by severe fever with thrombocytop enia syndrome virus. J Virol 86(16):8388–8401PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sahib MM (2010) rapid development of optimized recombinant adenoviral vaccines for biosafety level 4 viruses. Master of Science. Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  99. Saksida A, Duh D, Wraber B, Dedushaj I, Ahmeti S, Avsic-Zupanc T (2010) Interacting roles of immune mechanisms and viral load in the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17(7):1086–1093PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Sanchez AJ, Vincent MJ, Erickson BR, Nichol ST (2006) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoprotein precursor is cleaved by Furin-like and SKI-1 proteases to generate a novel 38-kilodalton glycoprotein. J Virol 80(1):514–525PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sari I, Bakir S, Engin A, Aydin H, Poyraz O (2013) Some acute phase reactants and cholesterol levels in serum of patient with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 13(1):21–26PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shi J, Hu S, Liu X, Yang J, Liu D, Wu L, Wang H, Hu Z, Deng F, Shen S (2017) Migration, recombination, and reassortment are involved in the evolution of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus. Infect Genet Evol 47:109–117PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Shimada S, Posadas-Herrera G, Aoki K, Morita K, Hayasaka D (2015) Therapeutic effect of post-exposure treatment with antiserum on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in a mouse model of SFTS virus infection. Virology 482:19–27PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shimojima M, Fukushi S, Tani H, Taniguchi S, Fukuma A, Saijo M (2015) Combination effects of ribavirin and interferons on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection. Virol J 12:181Google Scholar
  105. Simon M, Johansson C, Mirazimi A (2009) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus entry and replication is clathrin-, pH- and cholesterol-dependent. J Gen Virol 90(Pt 1):210–215PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Smirnova SE (1979) A comparative study of the Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo group of viruses. Arch Virol 62(2):137–143PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Spik K, Shurtleff A, McElroy AK, Guttieri MC, Hooper JW, SchmalJohn C (2006) Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Vaccine 24(21):4657–4666PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Suda Y, Fukushi S, Tani H, Murakami S, Saijo M, Horimoto T, Shimojima M (2016) Analysis of the entry mechanism of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, using a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyping system. Arch Virol 161(6):1447–1454PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Sun Y, Jin C, Zhan F, Wang X, Liang M, Zhang Q, Ding S, Guan X, Huo X, Li C, Qu J, Wang Q, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Wang S, Xu A, Bi Z, Li D (2012) Host cytokine storm is associated with disease severity of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Infect Dis 206(7):1085–1094PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sun Y, Qi Y, Liu C, Gao W, Chen P, Fu L, Peng B, Wang H, Jing Z, Zhong G, Li W (2014) Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA is a critical factor contributing to the efficiency of early infection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol 88(1):237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Takahashi T, Maeda K, Suzuki T, Ishido A, Shigeoka T, Tominaga T, Kamei T, Honda M, Ninomiya D, Sakai T, Senba T, Kaneyuki S, Sakaguchi S, Satoh A, Hosokawa T, Kawabe Y, Kurihara S, Izumikawa K, Kohno S, Azuma T, Suemori K, Yasukawa M, Mizutani T, Omatsu T, Katayama Y, Miyahara M, Ijuin M, Doi K, Okuda M, Umeki K, Saito T, Fukushima K, Nakajima K, Yoshikawa T, Tani H, Fukushi S, Fukuma A, Ogata M, Shimojima M, Nakajima N, Nagata N, Katano H, Fukumoto H, Sato Y, Hasegawa H, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Kurane I, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2014) The first identification and retrospective study of severe fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Japan. J Infect Dis 209(6):816–827PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tani H, Shimojima M, Fukushi S, Yoshikawa T, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2016a) Characterization of glycoprotein-mediated entry of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol 90(11):5292–5301PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tani H, Fukuma A, Fukushi S, Taniguchi S, Yoshikawa T, Iwata-Yoshikawa N, Sato Y, Suzuki T, Nagata N, Hasegawa H, Kawai Y, Uda A, Morikawa S, Shimojima M, Watanabe H, Saijo M (2016b) Efficacy of T-705 (Favipiravir) in the treatment of infections with lethal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. mSphere 1(1):e00061-15Google Scholar
  114. Tasdelen Fisgin N, Fisgin T, Tanyel E, Doganci L, Tulek N, Guler N, Duru F (2008) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: five patients with hemophagocytic syndrome. Am J Hematol 83(1):73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tran XC, Yun Y, Van An L, Kim SH, Thao NTP, Man PKC, Yoo JR, Heo ST, Cho NH, Lee KH (2019) Endemic Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis 25(5):1029–1031PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tignor GH, Hanham CA (1993) Ribavirin efficacy in an in vivo model of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) infection. Antivir Res 22(4):309–325PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Uehara N, Yano T, Ishihara A, Saijou M, Suzuki T (2016) Fatal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: an autopsy case report. Intern Med 55(7):831–838PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. van Eeden PJ, van Eeden SF, Joubert JR, King JB, van de Wal BW, Michell WL (1985) A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at Tygerberg Hospital. Part II. Management of patients. S Afr Med J 68(10):718–721PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Vassilenko SM, Vassilev TL, Bozadjiev LG, Bineva IL, Kazarov GZ (1990) Specific intravenous immunoglobulin for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 335(8692):791–792PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Vorou R, Pierroutsakos IN, Maltezou HC (2007) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis 20(5):495–500PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang S, Li J, Niu G, Wang X, Ding S, Jiang X, Li C, Zhang Q, Liang M, Bi Z, Li D (2015) SFTS virus in ticks in an endemic area of China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92(4):684–689PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weng Y, Chen N, Han Y, Xing Y, Li J (2014) Clinical and laboratory characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Chinese patients. Braz J Infect Dis 18(1):88–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Whitehouse CA (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antivir Res 64(3):145–160PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Xiao X, Feng Y, Zhu Z, Dimitrov DS (2011) Identification of a putative Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus entry factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 411(2):253–258PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Xu B, Liu L, Huang X, Ma H, Zhang Y, Du Y, Wang P, Tang X, Wang H, Kang K, Zhang S, Zhao G, Wu W, Yang Y, Chen H, Mu F, Chen W (2011) Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus. PLoS Pathog 7(11):e1002369PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yoo JR, Heo ST, Park D, Kim H, Fukuma A, Fukushi S, Shimojima M, Lee KH (2016) Family cluster analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95(6):1351–1357PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Yoshikawa T, Shimojima M, Fukushi S, Tani H, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Singh H, Suda Y, Shirabe K, Toda S, Shimazu Y, Nomachi T, Gokuden M, Morimitsu T, Ando K, Yoshikawa A, Kan M, Uramoto M, Osako H, Kida K, Takimoto H, Kitamoto H, Terasoma F, Honda A, Maeda K, Takahashi T, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2015) Phylogenetic and geographic relationships of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in China, South Korea, and Japan. J Infect Dis 212(6):889–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang YP, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan FX, Wang XJ, Kan B, Wang SW, Wan KL, Jing HQ, Lu JX, Yin WW, Zhou H, Guan XH, Liu JF, Bi ZQ, Liu GH, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song JD, He JR, Wan T, Zhang JS, Fu XP, Sun LN, Dong XP, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li DX (2011) Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364(16):1523–1532PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yuan F, Zheng A (2017) Entry of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Virol Sin 32(1):44–50PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Yun SM, Lee WG, Ryou J, Yang SC, Park SW, Roh JY, Lee YJ, Park C, Han MG (2014) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from humans, South Korea, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 20(8):1358–1361PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yun MR, Park SW, Kwon T, Lee S, Yoo WG, Choi W, Lee WJ, Kim DW (2015a) Full-genome sequences of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, isolated from South Korea in 2014. Genome Announc 3(2): e00181-15Google Scholar
  132. Yun Y, Heo ST, Kim G, Hewson R, Kim H, Park D, Cho NH, Oh WS, Ryu SY, Kwon KT, Medlock JM, Lee KH (2015b) Phylogenetic analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in South Korea and migratory bird routes between China, South Korea, and Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(3):468–474PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yun SM, Park SJ, Park SW, Choi W, Jeong HW, Choi YK, Lee WJ (2017) Molecular genomic characterization of tick- and human-derived severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus isolates from South Korea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(9):e0005893PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhang L, Liu Y, Ni D, Li Q, Yu Y, Yu XJ, Wan K, Li D, Liang G, Jiang X, Jing H, Run J, Luan M, Fu X, Zhang J, Yang W, Wang Y, Dumler JS, Feng Z, Ren J, Xu J (2008) Nosocomial transmission of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in China. JAMA 300(19):2263–2270PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhang YZ, Zhou DJ, Qin XC, Tian JH, Xiong Y, Wang JB, Chen XP, Gao DY, He YW, Jin D, Sun Q, Guo WP, Wang W, Yu B, Li J, Dai YA, Li W, Peng JS, Zhang GB, Zhang S, Chen XM, Wang Y, Li MH, Lu X, Ye C, de Jong MD, Xu J (2012) The ecology, genetic diversity, and phylogeny of Huaiyangshan virus in China. J Virol 86(5):2864–2868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zhang X, Liu Y, Zhao L, Li B, Yu H, Wen H, Yu XJ (2013) An emerging hemorrhagic fever in China caused by a novel bunyavirus SFTSV. Sci China Life Sci 56(8):697–700PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhang L, Ye L, Ojcius DM, Lou X, Wang C, Feng C, Sun Y, Wang Z, Li S, Zhang Y (2014) Characterization of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in rural regions of Zhejiang, China. PLoS One 9(10):e111127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Special Pathogens Laboratory, Department of Virology INational Institute of Infectious DiseasesTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations