Reduction of Human Exposure and Premature Deaths by Indoor PM2.5 Cleaning in Beijing, China

  • Yumeng Liu
  • Bin ZhaoEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


China is experiencing severe PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollution. Controlling indoor PM2.5 concentration is critical to reduce personal exposure to PM2.5 as people spend most of their time indoors. A two-dimensional Monte Carlo model was applied to estimate the PM2.5 population exposure distribution, potential impact fraction (PIF) and decrease of premature mortality by reducing indoor PM2.5 to World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m3, WHO Interim Target levels 1, 2, and 3 of 35 μg/m3, 25 μg/m3, and 15 μg/m3 with indoor cleaning. 1376 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 943–2438) premature deaths would be averted from controlling indoor PM2.5 to WHO Air Quality Guideline, which accounts for 0.0114% of the total population in Beijing, greater than that from controlling to WHO Interim Target 3 level (536, 95% UI: 381–952). The results showed that indoor PM2.5 control by indoor air purifier is an effective and easy method to protect human health from PM2.5 pollution.


PM2.5 Indoor cleaning Indoor air quality Exposure 



We would like to thank Jianghao Wang (Associate Professor) for providing the daily ambient PM2.5 concentration and population data in Beijing in 2016.


  1. 1.
    Brook, R.D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C.A., Brook, J.R., Bhatnagar, A., Diezroux, A.V., Holguin, F., Hong, Y., Luepker, R.V., Mittleman, M.A.: Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the American heart association. Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burnett, R.T., Arden, C.P., Majid, E., Casey, O., Lim, S.S., Sumi, M., Shin, H.H., Gitanjali, S., Bryan, H., Michael, B.: An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 122(4), 397–403 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Michael, B., Markus, A., Burnett, R.T., Aaron, C., Frank, D., Majid, E., Henderson, S.B., Michal, K., Martin, R.V., Rita, V.D.: Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(2), 652–660 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Behar, J.V.: The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. J Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 11(3), 231–252 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Exposure Factors Handbook of Chinese Population. China Environment Press, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ji, W., Zhou, B., Zhao, B.: Potential reductions in premature mortality attributable to PM2.5 by reducing indoor pollution: A model analysis for Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei of China. Environ. Pollut. 245, 260 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shi, S., Chen, C., Zhao, B.: Modifications of exposure to ambient particulate matter: Tackling bias in using ambient concentration as surrogate with particle infiltration factor and ambient exposure factor. Environ. Pollut. 94(6), 1024–1029 (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yao, M.: Distribution of air change rates in residential buildings in Beijing, China (under review). Build. Simul. (2019)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ji, W., Zhao, B.: Contribution of outdoor-originating particles, indoor-emitted particles and indoor secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to residential indoor PM2.5 concentration: a model-based estimation. Build. Environ. 90, 196–205 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van, D.A., Martin, R.V., Brauer, M., Hsu, N.C., Kahn, R.A., Levy, R.C., Lyapustin, A., Sayer, A.M., Winker, D.M.: Global estimates of fine particulate matter using a combined geophysical-statistical method with information from satellites, models, and monitors. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(7), 3762 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Building Science, School of ArchitectureTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Quality Evaluation and ControlTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations