Measurement Study on Outdoor PM2.5 Affecting Occupants’ Window Opening Duration in Residential Buildings in Beijing, China

  • Xu Wang
  • Yiwen JianEmail author
  • Ruimin Guo
  • Yuchen Hou
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Occupants’ interactions with windows have a significant influence on indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and energy consumption. In residential buildings, window opening duration may vary considerably owing to different indoor and outdoor environmental parameters and personal habits. In order to investigate whether outdoor PM2.5 affects human window opening duration, field measurements were conducted in 14 residential buildings to monitor switch status of windows in living room, bedroom, and kitchen. The results showed that most occupants showed a clear difference in window opening duration among the three main functional rooms in terms of the effect of outdoor PM2.5. The heavy pollution in the non-smog season had a great impact on occupants’ windowing behavior, which reflects that people did not pay enough attention to the mild and moderate pollution in the non-smog season. Combined with the effects of outdoor PM2.5, the bedroom was the best room for the window opening mode. This study reflects unreasonable window opening situation in the living room and kitchen currently.


Residential buildings PM2.5 Window opening duration 



The research was supported financially by the National Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China, on Green Buildings and Building Industrialization through Grant No. 2016YFC0700501. This study was conducted with the support from several teachers of Beijing University of Technology and Beijing Union University. We would like to express our gratitude to Prof. Zhenhua Quan, Prof. Yuying Sun, Prof. Xuechun Liu, Prof. Suduo Xue, and Prof. Jing Dong from Beijing University of Technology; Prof. Xiaojun Ma, Prof. Xia Lei, and Prof. Peizhe Tian from Beijing Union University; and the graduate students Yuanquan Tian and Xiaoxiao Liu for their help in collecting data for the investigation.

Ethical approval All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Permissions Appropriate permissions from house owners were obtained for study in household.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Architecture and Civil EngineeringBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Green Building Environment and Energy-Saving TechnologyBeijing Key LaboratoryBeijingChina

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