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Aspergillosis in Humans and Animals

  • Seyedmojtaba SeyedmousaviEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Aspergillosis is a one-health infectious disease caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus, a group of ubiquitous saprophytes recovered from a variety of substrates in the environment. Aspergillus species cause a wide range of diseases in human and various animal species, including acute, chronic, noninvasive localized infections, fatal disseminated diseases, as well as allergic reactions. There are more than 250 validly described species in the genus Aspergillus based on polyphasic taxonomy, and they are subdivided into 22 distinct sections. Species identification of Aspergillus species can be challenging. A two-step approach has been suggested for molecular identification of Aspergillus species in the clinical setting. The first step is to sequence ITS, the barcoding marker for the identification to the intersection level, followed by sequencing of partial β-tubulin for individual species identification within the sections. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategy has also shown promising results to discriminate the intra-section level of clinically relevant species of Aspergillus, including the non-fumigatus “cryptic” species.

The antifungal triazoles are preferred agents for treatment and prevention of infections caused by Aspergillus species. However, with wide application of azoles in medical practice and agriculture, emergence of triazole resistance in A. fumigatus caused by mutations in the Cyp51A gene has become a global public health concern.

Keywords

Aspergillus fumigatus Antifungal resistance Emerging non-fumigatus species Human aspergillosis Mammalian aspergillosis 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institutes of Health (NIH)BethesdaUSA

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