Advertisement

From Genetic Engineering to Gene Editing: Harnessing Advances in Biology for National Economic Development

  • Chandra Sekhara Rao Nuthalapati
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter has examined the nature and adoption of biotechnologies, socio-economic impacts, regulatory frameworks and concerns for rising farm incomes in a cross-country perspective. The product development in biotech has been moving from just insect/herbicide resistance to breaking yield barriers, drought tolerance and quality enhancing traits, just from 3 to 31 crops, a large share of acreage in developing countries and increasing penetration of public sector. The frontiers have been moving forward with the fundamental breakthrough in the form of CRISPR-Cas 9 technique with wide-ranging applications. A rigorous study of peer-reviewed literature shows that GE crop cultivation has increased yields and net income, reduced pesticide usage and helped conserve tillage. Biosafety laws have been stifling product development, and therefore harnessing biotechnologies necessitate enabling policies like a legal framework for biosafety, labelling and trans-boundary movement. Developing countries need to put in place regulations for the new plant breeding techniques on par with the conventional plant breeding techniques. The policy implications have been then drawn for utilization of opportunities in advancement of biotechnology for developing country agriculture.

Keywords

Yield effect Selection bias Halo effect Employment Regulatory framework IPRs Drought tolerance Labelling Consolidation 

JEL Classification

J4 K19 L1 O3 Q10 Q16 

References

  1. Acemoglu D, Robinson JA (2012) Why nations fail: origins of power, prosperity and poverty. Profile Books Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Adato M, Meinzen-Dick R, Hazell P, Lawrence H (2007) Integrating social and economic analyses to study impacts on livelihoods and poverty: conceptual frameworks and research methods. In: Adato M, Meinzen-Dick R (eds) Agricultural research, livelihoods, and poverty: studies of economic and social impacts in six countries. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 20–55Google Scholar
  3. Adenle AA, Morris EJ, Murphy DJ, Phillips PWB, Trigo E, Learns P, Quemada Y, Li H, Falck-Zepeda J, Komen J (2018) Rationalizing governance of genetically modified products in developing countries. Nat Biotechnol 36(2):137–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahluwalia MS (1978) Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India. J Dev Stud 14:298–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson K (2010) Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade. New Biotechnol 27(5):558–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson K, Valenzuela E, Jackson LA (2008) Recent and prospective adoption of genetically modified cotton: a global CGE analysis of economic impacts. Econ Dev Cult Chang 56:265–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Areal FJ, Riesgo L, Rodriguez-Cerezo E (2013) Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: a meta-analysis. J Agric Sci 151:7–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong S, Westland T (2016) Escaping the middle income trap. East Asia Forum Blog. Retrieved from http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2016/03/28/escaping-the-middle-income-trap
  9. Ashok KR, Giuliani AM, Thilagavathi SV, Raj R, Ramamoorthy MD, Sanjeevi Kumar A (2017) Trait valuation in genetically modified crops: an ex-ante analysis of GM cassava against cassava mosaic disease. Agric Econ Res Rev 30(2):223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey R (2002) The looming trade war over plant biotechnology. Cato Trade Policy Analysis, 18. Center for Trade Policy Studies, Cato Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Bansal S, Gruere GP (2012) Implications of mandatory labelling of GM food in India: evidence from the supply side. Food Policy 37(4):467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barrett C, Carter MR, Timmer CP (2010) A century-long perspective on agricultural development. Am J Agric Econ 92(32):447–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boccaletti S, Farncesca P, Soregaroli C (2017) Segregation between GM and non-GM inputs and EU feed and food supply chains, future scenarios. AgBioforum 20(1):1–13Google Scholar
  14. Bortesi L, Fischer R (2015) The CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and beyond. Biotechnol Adv 33(1):41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouis HE, Saltzman A, Birol E (2019) Improving nutrition through Biofortification. In: Fan S, Yosef S, Pandya-Lorch R (eds) Agriculture for improved nutrition: seizing the momentum. CAB InternationalGoogle Scholar
  16. Brewin DG, Malla S (2012) The consequences of biotechnology: a broad view of the changes in the Canadian canola sector, 1969–2012. AgBioforum 15(3):257–275Google Scholar
  17. Brookes G (2005) The farm level impact of using round up ready soybeans in Romania. AgBioforum 8(4):235–241Google Scholar
  18. Brookes G, Barfoot P (2015) GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996–2013. PG Economics Ltd., DorchesterGoogle Scholar
  19. Brookes G, Barfoot P (2018a) Farm income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996– 2016. GM Crops Food 9(1):59–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brookes G, Barfoot P (2018b) Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2016: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions. GMCrops Food 9(3):109–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bryant H, Maisashvili A, Outlaw J, Richardson J (2016) Effects of proposed mergers and acquisitions among biotechnology firms on seed prices. Working Paper16-2, Agricultural and Food Policy Centre, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M Agri Life Extension Services, Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://www.afpc/tamu.edu/
  22. Carpenter JE (2010) Peer-reviewed surveys indicate positive impact of commercialized crops. Nat Biotechnol 28:319–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carpenter J, Felsot A, Goode T, Hamming M (2002) Comparative environmental impacts of biotechnology-derived and traditional soybean, corn, and cotton crops. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, AmesGoogle Scholar
  24. Carriere Y, Ellers-Kirk C, Sisterson M, Antilla L, Whitlow M, Timothy JD, Tabashinik BE (2003) Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(4):1519–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Craig W, Obonyo DN, Tepfer M (2017) A strategy for integrating science into regulatory decision-making for GMOs: in genetically modified organisms in developing countries. In: Adenle AA, Morris EJ, Murphy D (eds) Risk analysis and governance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 26–38Google Scholar
  26. Dalrymple DG (2008) International agricultural research as a global public good: concepts, the CGIAR experience, and policy issues. J Int Dev 20:347–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Faria RN, Wieck C (2015) Empirical evidence on the trade impact of asynchronous regulatory approval of new GMO events. Food Policy 53:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de Janvry A, Sadoulet E (2002) World poverty and the role of agricultural technology: direct and indirect effects. J Dev Stud 38(4):1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dev SM, Rao CN (2010) Agricultural price policy, farm profitability and food security. Econ Political Wkly 45(26–27):174–182Google Scholar
  30. Durr J (2016) The political economy of agriculture for development today: the “small versus large” scale debate revisited. Agric Econ 47:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. EFSA (2012) Scientific opinion addressing the safety assessment of plants developed using zinc finger nuclease 3 and other site-directed nucleases with similar function. EFSA J 10(10):2943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eichengreen B, Park D, Shin K (2013) Growth slowdown redux: new evidence on the middle-income trap. Working Paper No. 18673. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, USAGoogle Scholar
  33. Fabrick JA et al (2014) Alternative splicing and highly variable cadherin transcripts associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in India. PLoS One 9(5):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Falck-Zepeda JB, Traxler G, Nelson RG (2000) Surplus distribution from the introduction of a biotechnology innovation. Am J Agric Econ 82(2):360–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fernandez-Cornejo J, McBride WD (2002) Adoption of bioengineered crops. Agricultural Economic Report NO.810. US Department of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  36. Fernandez-Cornejo, Hendricks C, Mishra A (2005) Technology adoption and Off-Farm household income: the case of herbicide-tolerant soybeans. J Agric Appl Econ 37(2):549–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Finger R et al (2011) A meta-analysis on farm-level costs and benefits of GM crops. Sustainability 3:743–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fitt GP (2003) Implementation and impact of transgenic Bt cottons in Australia. ICAC Recorder 21(4):14–19Google Scholar
  39. Ghouse M, Piesse J, Thirtle C, Poulton C (2009) Assessing the performance of GM maize amongst stall holders in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AgBioforum 12(1):78–89Google Scholar
  40. Ghouse M, Sengupta D, Zambrano P, Falck-Zepeda J (2016) Genetically modified: less drudgery for her, more maize for him? Evidence from smallholder maize farmers in South Africa. World Dev 83:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Graff G, Zilberman D (2016) How the ‘IP-Regulatory’ complex affects incentives to develop socially desirable products from agricultural genomics. In: Marden E, Godfrey RN, Manion R (eds) The intellectual property- regulatory complex: overcoming barriers to innovation in agricultural genomics. University of British Columbia Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  42. Graff G, Hochman G, Suntharlingam C, Zilberman D (2015) The competing policy paradigms of agricultural biotechnology: implications and opportunities for emerging and developing economies. AgBioforum 18(2):168–181Google Scholar
  43. Gruere G, Sengupta D (2011) Bt cotton and farmer suicides in India: an evidence-based assessment. J Dev Stud 47(2):316–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gruere G, Sun Y (2012) Measuring the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to India’s cotton yields leap. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01170, April. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  45. Guenthner JF (2017) Economic and environmental benefits of biotech potatoes with traits for bruise resistance, late blight resistance, and cold storage. AgBioforum 20(1):37–45Google Scholar
  46. Gullickson G (2018) 10 Ag mergers and acquisitions from 2017. Available at: http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail%2D%2D-24882-e.htm. Accessed on 27 May 2019
  47. Gupta A (2011) An evolving science-society contract in India: the search for legitimacy in anticipatory risk governance. Food Policy 36:736–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hall C, Knight B, Ringrose S, Knox O (2013) What have been the farm-level economic impacts of the global cultivation of GM crops? Syst Rev. CEE review11-002, Collaboration for Environmental Evidence Library. Retrieved from www.environmentalevidence.org/SR110
  49. Hazell PBR (2009) The Asian green revolution. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 00911. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Hefferon KL, Herring RJ (2017) The end of the GMO? Genome editing, gene drives and new frontiers of plant technology. Rev Agrar Stud 7(1):1–32Google Scholar
  51. Heller MA, Eisenberg RS (1998) Can patents deter innovation? The anti commons in biomedical research. Science 280:698–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Herring RJ, Paarlberg R (2016) The political economy of biotechnology. Ann Rev Resour Econ 8(8):1–8. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/journal/resourceGoogle Scholar
  53. Howard PH (2015) Intellectual property and consolidation in the seed industry. Crop Sci 55(2015):1–7Google Scholar
  54. Hutchison WD et al (2010) Area wide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers. Science 330:222–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. ISAAA (2017) Global status of commercialised Biotech/GM crops in 2017: biotech crop adoption surges as economic benefits accumulate in 22 years. ISAAA Brief 53. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  56. Jaganathan D, Ramasamy K, Sellamuthu G, Jayabalan S, Venkataraman G (2018) CRISPR for crop improvement, an update review. Front Plant Sci 9:985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jander G, Baerson SR, Hudak JA, Gonzalez KA, Gruys K, Gomez E et al (2003) Ethylmethanesulfonate saturation mutagenesis in Arabidopsis to determine frequency of herbicide resistance. Plant Physiol 131(1):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jefferson DJ, Padmanabhan MS (2016) Recent evolutions in intellectual property frameworks for agricultural biotechnology: a worldwide survey. Asian Biotechnol Dev Rev 18(1):47–67Google Scholar
  59. Kalaitzandonakes N, Kruse J, Gouse M (2015) The potential economic impacts of herbicide tolerant maize in developing countries: review and evidence from Kenya. AgBioforum 18(2):221–238Google Scholar
  60. Kathage J, Qaim M (2012) Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(29):1652–11656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Klumper W, Qaim M (2014) A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. Plos-One 9(11–29):1–7. Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111629Google Scholar
  62. Kniss A (2008) Farm-scale analysis of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet the year of commercial introduction in Wyoming. International Weed Science Society Annual MeetingGoogle Scholar
  63. Kolodinsky J, Lusk JL (2018) Mandatory labels can improve toward genetically engineered food. Sci Adv 4(6):1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kouser S, Qaim M (2011) Impact of Bt cotton on pesticide poisoning in smallholder agriculture: a panel data analysis. Ecol Econ 70(11):2015–2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kouser S, Qaim M (2013) Genetically modified crops and food security. PLoS One. open access journal, JuneGoogle Scholar
  66. Kranthi KR (2015) Pink bollworm strikes cotton again. Cotton Statistics and News No.35. Retrieved from http://www.cicr.org.in/pdf/Kranthi_art/Pinkbollworm.pdf
  67. Krishna V, Qaim M (2012) Bt cotton and sustainability of pesticide reductions in India. Agric Syst 107:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lassoued R, Stuart JS, Peter WBP, Hayley H (2018) Regulatory uncertainty around new breeding techniques. Front Plant Sci 9:1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis A (1954) Economic development with unlimited supplies of labor. In: Gersovitz M (ed) Selected economic writings of W. Arthur Lewis. New York University Press, 1983Google Scholar
  70. Lianos I, Katalevsky D, Ivanov A (2016) The global seed market, competition law and intellectual property rights: untying the Gordian knot. Research Paper Series: 2/2016. Centre for Law, Economics and Society, University of London. Retrieved from www.ucl.ac.uk/cles/research-paper-series
  71. Lichtenberg E, Zilberman D (1986) The econometrics of damage control: why specification matters. Am J Agric Econ 68:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marra MC, Piggott NE, Carlson GA (2004) The net benefits, including convenience, of roundup ready soybean: results from a national survey. Technical Bulletin 2004-3. NSF Centre for IPM, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  73. Mellor JW (2006) Pro-poor growth- the relation between agricultural growth and poverty reduction. In: Radhakrishna R, Rao SK, Dev SM, Subbarao K (eds) India in a globalising world: some aspects of macro economy, agriculture and poverty. Academic Foundation, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  74. Morris EJ (2017) Biosafety regulatory systems in Africa. In: David PK, Makinde D, Weebadde CK, Maredia K (eds) Biosafety in Africa, experiences and best practicesGoogle Scholar
  75. Morse S, Mannion AM, Evans C (2012) Location, location, location: presenting evidence for genetically modified crops. Appl Geogr 34:274–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Muller C, Robertson RD (2014) Projecting future crop productivity for global economic modelling. Agric Econ 45:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. NASEM (2016) Genetically engineered crops: experiences and prospects. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. Retrieved fromwww.nap.eduGoogle Scholar
  78. Otuska K (2013) Food insecurity, income inequality, and the changing comparative advantage in world agriculture. Agric Econ 44:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pardey PG, Chan-Kang C, Beddow JM, Dehmer SP (2015) Long-run and Global R&D Funding Trajectories: the U.S. farm bill in a changing context. Am J Agric Econ 97(5):1312–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pingali P (2012) Green revolution: impacts, limits and the path ahead. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(31):12302–12308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pray CE, Huang JHR, Rozelle S (2002) Five years of Bt cotton in China- the benefits continue. Plant J 31:423–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Punt MJ, Venus TJ, Justus W (2017) The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany. AgBioforum 20(1):24–36Google Scholar
  83. Purnhagen KP, Esther K, Kleter G, Schebesta H, Visser RGG, Justus W (2018) EU court casts new plant breeding techniques into regulatory limbo. Nat Biotechnol 36(9):799–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Qaim M (2009) The economics of genetically modified crops. Ann Rev Resour Econ 1:665–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Qaim M (2016) Genetically modified crops and agricultural development. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Qaim M, de Janvry A (2003) Genetically modified crops, corporate pricing strategies, and farmers’ adoption: the case of Bt cotton in Argentina. Am J Agric Econ 85(4):814–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Qaim M, Traxler G (2005) Roundup ready soybeans in Argentina: farm level and aggregate welfare effects. Agric Econ 32:73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Qiao F (2015) Fifteen years of Bt cotton in China: the economic impact and its dynamics. World Dev 70:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rao NC (2004) Plant biotechnology and the emerging scenario. Rev Dev Chang 9(1):69–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rao NC (2013) Bt cotton yields and performance: data and methodological issues. Econ Political Wkly 48(33):66–69Google Scholar
  91. Rao NC (2015) Disadvantaged regions and social groups: is there a way out? Indian J Agric Econ 70(3):438–449Google Scholar
  92. Rao NC, Dev SM (2009) Biotechnology and pro-poor agricultural development. Econ Polit Wkly 44(52):56–56Google Scholar
  93. Rao NC, Dev SM (2010) Biotechnology in Indian agriculture: potential, performance and concerns. Academic Foundation, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  94. Rao NC, Pray CE, Herring RJ (2015) Biotechnology for a second green revolution in India: socioeconomic, political and public policy issues. AgBioforum 18(2):126–141. Retrieved from www.agbioforum.orgGoogle Scholar
  95. Rao NC, Carl EP, Ronald JH (2018) Biotechnology for second green revolution in India, overview of issues. In: Rao NCS, Pray CE, Herring RJ (eds) Biotechnology for a second green revolution in India, socioeconomic, political and public policy issues. Academic Foundation, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  96. Ravi B (2013) Gene patents in India: gauging policy by an analysis of the Grants made by the Indian patent office. J Intellect Prop Rights 18(4):323–329Google Scholar
  97. Rosado A, Craig W (2017) Biosafety regulatory systems overseeing the use of genetically modified organisms in the Latin America and Caribbean region. AgBioforum 20(2):120–132Google Scholar
  98. Schaart JG, Visser RGF (2009) Novel plant breeding techniques-consequences of new genetic modification-based plant breeding techniques in comparison to conventional plant breeding (Report 2009-02). The Netherlands Commission on Genetic Modification (COGEM), Bilthoven, pp 2785–2794Google Scholar
  99. Schultz TW (1964) Transforming traditional agriculture. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  100. Seyran E, Craig W (2018) New breeding techniques and their possible regulation. AgBioforum 21(1):1–12Google Scholar
  101. Shiva V (2018) Biodiversity, GMOs, gene drives and militarised mind. Retrieved from http://www.ipsnews.net/2016/07/biodiversity-gmos-gene-drives-and-the-militarised-mind/
  102. Smale M, Zambrano P, Paz-Ybarnegaray R, Fernandez-Montano W (2012) A case of resistance: herbicide-tolerant soybeans in Bolivia. AgBioforum 15(2):191–205Google Scholar
  103. Smyth SJ, Jose FZ, Karinne L (2016) The costs of regulatory delays for genetically modified crops. Estey J Int Law Trade Policy 17(2):173–195Google Scholar
  104. Spielaman D, Nazli H, Ma A, Zambrano P, Zaidi F (2015) Technological opportunity, regulatory uncertainty, and Bt cotton in Pakistan. AgBioforum 18(1):98–112Google Scholar
  105. Srinivas KR (2018) Regulating genome edited crops and European court of justice ruling. Asian Biotechnol Dev Rev 20(1–2):89–97Google Scholar
  106. Stephens, J., Barakate, A. (2017). Gene editing technologies – ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9, Encyclopedia of applied plant sciences, 2nd B. Thomas, B. G. Murray, D. J. Murphy (Cambridge, MA: Academic), 157–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394807-6.00242-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stone G (2011) Field versus farm in Warangal: Bt cotton, higher yields and larger questions. World Dev 39(3):387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Subramanian A, Qaim M (2009) Village-wide effects of agricultural biotechnology: the case of Bt cotton in India. World Dev 37(1):256–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Subramanian A, Qaim M (2010) The impact of Bt cotton on poor households in rural India. J Dev Stud 46(2):295–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Swinnen J, Riera O (2013) The global bio-economy. Agric Econ 44:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Thirtle C, Beyers L, Ismael Y, Piesse J (2003) Can GM-technologies help the poor? The impact of Bt cotton in Makhathini Flats, Kwa Zulu-Natal. World Dev 31(4):717–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Till BJ, Cooper J, Tai TH, Colowit P, Greene EA, Henikoff S, Comai L (2007) Discovery of chemically induced mutations in rice by TILLING. BMC Plant Biol 7:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Traxler G, Godoy-Avila S, Falck-Zepeda J, Espinoza-Arellano J (2003) Transgenic cotton in Mexico: a case study of the Comarca Lagunera. In: Kalaitzandonakes N (ed) The economic and environmental impacts of Agbiotech. Kluwer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. USDA (2015) Argentina annual biotechnology report, GAIN report. United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural ServiceGoogle Scholar
  115. Vigani M, Olper A (2012) International trade and endogenous standards: the case of GMO regulations. World Trade Rev 11(3):415–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. WB (2007) World Development Report (2008). Agriculture for development. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson WW, De Vuyst EA, Taylor RD, Koo WW, Dahl BL (2008) Implications of biotech traits with segregation costs and market segments: the case of roundup ready wheat. Eur Rev Agric Econ 35(1):51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Witsjaksono J, Wei X, Mao S, Gong W, Li Y, Yuan Y (2014) Yield and economic performance of the use of GM cotton worldwide over time: a review and meta-analysis. China Agric Econ Rev 6(4):616–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wu KM, Lu YH, Feng HQ, Jiang YY, Zhao JH (2008) Suppression of cotton bollworm in multiple crops in China in areas with Bt toxin-containing cotton. Science 321:1676–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yorobe JM, Smale M (2012) Impacts of Bt maize on smallholder income in the Philippines. AgBioforum 15(2):152–162Google Scholar
  121. Zaidi SSA, Vanderschuren H, Qai M, Mahfouz MM, Kohli A, Mansoor S, Tester M (2019) New plant breeding technologies for food security. Science 363(6434):1390–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zilberman D, Kim E, Kirschner S, Kaplan S, Reeves J (2013) Technology and the future bio economy. Agric Econ 44:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandra Sekhara Rao Nuthalapati
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Economic GrowthUniversity of Delhi EnclaveNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations