Nanomaterials: Types, Synthesis and Characterization

  • T. C. Mokhena
  • M. J. John
  • M. A. Sibeko
  • V. C. Agbakoba
  • M. J. Mochane
  • A. Mtibe
  • T. H. Mokhothu
  • T. S. Motsoeneng
  • M. M. Phiri
  • M. J. Phiri
  • P. S. Hlangothi
  • T. G. Mofokeng
Part of the Clean Energy Production Technologies book series (CEPT)


Nanoparticles are generally defined as particles having one or more dimensions of sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles can be classified into organic, inorganic and carbon-based materials. In comparison with conventional micro-size particles, nanoparticles show enhanced properties, such as high reactivity, strength, surface area, sensitivity and stability due to their nanosize. Various preparation methods, viz. physical, chemical and mechanical, have been employed to synthesize different nanoparticles. This chapter presents an overview on nanoparticles and their types, properties, synthesis methods and application in bioconversion of biomass into biofuels.


Nanoparticles Synthesis Characterization Properties Biofuel application 



The authors would like to thank the financial support from the National Research Funding (NRF) and Department of Science and Technology (DST) Biorefinery Program in South Africa.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. Mokhena
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. J. John
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. A. Sibeko
    • 1
  • V. C. Agbakoba
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. J. Mochane
    • 3
  • A. Mtibe
    • 2
  • T. H. Mokhothu
    • 4
  • T. S. Motsoeneng
    • 2
  • M. M. Phiri
    • 1
  • M. J. Phiri
    • 1
  • P. S. Hlangothi
    • 1
  • T. G. Mofokeng
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  2. 2.CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and CompositesPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Life SciencesCentral University of Technology Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryDurban University of TechnologyDurbanSouth Africa
  5. 5.DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial ResearchPretoriaSouth Africa

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