Advertisement

Migration in Saudi Arabia: Present and Prospects

  • Rshood M. Khraif
  • Asharaf Abdul SalamEmail author
  • P. S. Nair
  • Ibrahim Elsegaey
Chapter

Abstract

As compared with other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Saudi Arabia has distinct demographic features. This leads the Saudi government to take measures to revisit its existing policies and schemes concerned with population. With this brief outline, migration data used in this article are pitched to understand five dimensions: (1) to look at the Saudi citizens’ migration trends within the Kingdom, (2) to analyse the impact of migration on the Kingdom’s population growth and also on the neighbouring GCC countries, (3) to look at the changes taking place annually in the Kingdom’s migration trends and in the other GCC countries, (4) to examine the migrants, looking at their origin place and (5) to analyse the variation between immigrants and Saudi Arabia citizens in terms of demographic parameters like population growth, sex ratio, broad age groups and age-sex distribution. Various databases available at both national and international levels were taken to address the five dimensions. The findings showed that push and pull factors and infrastructure differentials are taken into consideration while Saudi population internally migrate. All the GCC countries, including Saudi Arabia, experience international migration streams subject to the labour requirements and governmental regulations for both Arabs and non-Arabs. Immigrant demographics are characterized by Saudi Arabia’s labour demand controlled by adult males from other countries.

Keywords

Immigration Emigration Sex ratio Labour laws Employment 

Notes

Acknowledgement

An earlier version of this paper was included in the International Seminar on migration, care economy and development held at Center for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, on 17–19 September 2004. Its abstract is available on http://cds.edu/wp.content/uploads/2014/10/Souvenir_Migration.pdf. Accessed date: 3 March 2015.

References

  1. Aldossary, A., While, A., & Barriball, L. (2008). Health Care and Nursing in Saudi Arabia. International Nursing Review, 55, 125–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali, A. (1986). Labour Immigration in the Arab Gulf States: Patterns, Trends and Problems. International Migration, 24(3), 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Khalifeh, A. H. (1993). Population Spatial Distribution Policies in Saudi Arabia. In United Nations (Ed.), Population Spatial Distribution. Amman: ESCWA Social Development, Population and Human Settlements Division.Google Scholar
  4. Alrouh, H., Ismail, A., & Cheema, S. (2013). Demographic and Health Indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council Nations with an Emphasis on Qatar. Journal of Local Health Perspectives, 3.  https://doi.org/10.5339/jlghp.2013.3.
  5. Al-Yousuf, M., Akerele, T. M., & Al-Mazrou, Y. Y. (2002). Organization of the Saudi Health System. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 8(4/5), 645–653.Google Scholar
  6. Center for Population Studies. (2012). Dynamics of Saudi Arabian Population: Analysis Through Four Censuses – 1974, 1992, 2004 and 2010. Riyadh: CPS.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, J. I., & Murray, J. L. (1973). Population Dynamics of Large Middle Eastern Cities. IUSSP International Population Conference Liege, 1, 271–286.Google Scholar
  8. Courbage, Y. (1995). Declining Fertility in the Arab Peninsula. Population, 50(2), 415–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Forstenlechner, I., & Rutledge, E. J. (2011). The GCC’s “Demographic Imbalance”: Perceptions, Realities and Policy Options. Middle East Policy., 18(4), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fouad, S., & Al-Badr, A. A. (1995). The Composition of Population with Respect to Sex in Saudi Arabia. Cairo Demographic Centre Research Monograph Series No. 24, CDC, Cairo.Google Scholar
  11. General Authority of Statistics. Various Years. Censuses 1974, 1992, 2004, and 2010 and Demographic Survey 2017. Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
  12. Helderman, A. C., Ham, M. V., & Mulder, C. H. (2006). Migration and Home Ownership. Tijdschriftvoor Economischeen SocialeGeografie, 97(2), 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khraif, R. M. (1992). Permanent Versus Temporary Rural Migrants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia – A Logit Analysis of Their Intentions of Future Mobility. GeoJournal, 26(3), 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khraif, R. M. (1994). Residential Mobility in the City of Riyadh: A Study of Its Directions, Reasons and Characteristics. Occasional Paper by Saudi Geographic Society, Riyadh.Google Scholar
  15. Khraif, R. M. (2000). The Labor Force in Saudi Arabia: Spatial Dimensions and Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics. Occasional Paper by Saudi Geographic Society, Riyadh.Google Scholar
  16. Khraif, R. M. (2001, August 18–24). Fertility in Saudi Arabia: Levels and Determinants. XXIV General Population Conference, Brazil.Google Scholar
  17. Khraif, R. M. (2007). Urbanization and Growth of Cities in Saudi Arabia (1974–2004). Kuwait: Kuwait Geographic Society.Google Scholar
  18. Khraif, R. M. (2009a). Demographic Imbalances in GCC: Solutions and Confrontations. Riyadh: Center for Population Studies.Google Scholar
  19. Khraif, R. M. (2009b, 27 September–2 October). Fertility Behaviours of Grazing Groups in Suman and Northern Parts of Saudi Arabia. XXVI IUSSP International Population Conference, Morocco.Google Scholar
  20. Maben, J., Al-Thowini, K., West, E., & Rafferty, A. (2010). Uneven Development: Comparing the Indigenous Health Care Workforce in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Oman. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 392–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Makki, M. (1986). Regional and Urban Population Size Weights in Saudi Arabia, 1962–1974. GeoJournal, 13(2), 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Memis, Z., & Al-Rabeeah, A. A. (2013). Public Health Management of Mass Gatherings: The Saudi Arabian Experience with MERS-Cov. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91(12), 899–899A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roudi-Fahmi, F., & Kent, M. D. (2007). Challenges and Opportunities – The Population of the Middle East and North Africa. Population Bulletin, 62(2), 1–20.Google Scholar
  24. Salam, A. A., Elsegaey, I., Khraif, R., AlMutairi, A., & Aldosari, A. (2015). Components and Public Health Impact of Population Growth in the Arab World. PLoS One, 10(5), e0124944.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sufian, A. J. (1993). The Demography of Saudi Arabia. Population Review, 37(1–2), 64–70.Google Scholar
  26. Tabutin, D., & Schoumaker, B. (2005). The Demography of the Arab World and the Middle East from the 1950s to the 2000s. Population-E, 60(5–6), 505–616.Google Scholar
  27. UNDP. (2004). Kingdom of Saudi Arabia- Human Development Report 2003. Riyadh: United Nations Population Fund.Google Scholar
  28. United Nations. (1990). Oman to Zimbabwe. In United Nations (Ed.), World Population Policies. New York: Population Division.Google Scholar
  29. United Nations. (2006). Country Program Document for Saudi Arabia (2007–2011). New York: Executive Board of the United Nations Development Program and of the United Nations Population Fund.Google Scholar
  30. United Nations. (2009). The Use of Urban Observatories as a Tool for Localizing Urban and Social Policy. Economic and Social Council for Western Asia.Google Scholar
  31. Winckler, O. (2002). The Demographic Dilemma of the Arab World: The Employment Aspect. Journal of Contemporary History, 37(4), 617–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rshood M. Khraif
    • 1
  • Asharaf Abdul Salam
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. S. Nair
    • 2
  • Ibrahim Elsegaey
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Population StudiesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.International Centre for Gandhian StudiesThiruvananthapuramIndia

Personalised recommendations