Global City Shaping

  • Cole Hendrigan


We need to ascertain what is missing from the debate on urbanism. What fine point has not been made already, despite all the best efforts of the following authors? Through history there have been influential thinkers asking hard questions about resource availability, human health and the optimal manner of living in harmony with others.

There has been an ever-growing body of literature regarding perception of the environments we inhabit and how we appreciate, reuse, re-inhabit, occupy and make successful certain types of urban areas over others. An understanding of urban environments is imperative if we are to make transit-oriented developments or, as proposed later in this research, regions proposals successful.


  1. 83.
    Kaplan, R. and S. Kaplan, The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. 1989: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. 84.
    Appleton, J., The Experience of Landscape. 1975, New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  3. 85.
    Lynch, K., Image of the City. 1960, Boston: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. 46.
    Lynch, K., Good City Form. 1981, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  5. 86.
    Jacobs, J., Downtown is for People in Fortune Classic. 1958, CNN:
  6. 87.
    Jacobs, J., The Death and Life of Great American Cities. 1961, New York: Random House and Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  7. 88.
    Jacobs, A., E. MacDonald, and Y. Rofe, Boulevard Book: History, Evolution and design of Multiway Boulevards. 2001, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. 89.
    Jacobs, A.B., Great Streets. 1995, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. 64.
    Gehl, J., Life Between Buildings. 2001, Rotterdam: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  10. 90.
    Vuchic, V.R., Urban Transit. Operations, Planning and Economics. 2005, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  11. 58.
    Cervero, R. and K. Kockelman, Travel Demand and the 3Ds: Density, Diversity and Design. Transportation Research Part D, 1997. 2(3): pp. 199–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 91.
    Cervero, R., Transit-oriented development’s ridership bonus: a product of self-selection and public policy. Environment and Planning A, 2007. 39: pp. 2068–2085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 92.
    Cervero, R. and J. Day, Suburbanization and Transit-Oriented Development in China. Transport Policy, 2008. 15: pp. 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 93.
    Cervero, R. and E. Guerra, Urban Densities and Transit: A Multi-dimensional Perspective. 2011, UC Berkeley Centre for Future Urban Transport: Berkeley, USA.Google Scholar
  15. 94.
    Cervero, R. and C. Sullivan, Green TODs: marrying transit-oriented development and green urbanism. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 2011. 18(3): pp. 210–218.Google Scholar
  16. 7.
    Newman, P. and J. Kenworthy, Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. 1999, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  17. 8.
    Newman, P. and J. Kenworthy, Urban Design and Reduced Automobile Dependence. Opolis, 2006. 2(1): pp. 35–52.Google Scholar
  18. 95.
    Mees, P., Transport for Suburbia: Beyond the Automobile Age. 2010, London, UK: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  19. 96.
    Urban Land Institute, Smart growth: economy, community, environment. 1998: Urban Land Institute.Google Scholar
  20. 26.
    EPA. About Smart Growth. 2014 [cited 2014 May]; Available from:
  21. 62.
    Falconer, R., Living on the Edge: transport sustainability in Perth’s Liveable Neighbourhoods, in ISTp. 2008, Murdoch University: Perth.Google Scholar
  22. 97.
    Falconer, R., P. Newman, and B. Giles-Corti, Is practice aligned with the principles? Implementing New Urbanism in Perth, Western Australia. Transport Policy, (2010) 17(5): pp. 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 71.
    Brundtland, G.H., Our Common Future, From One Earth to One World, W.C.o.E.a. Development, Editor. 1987, United Nations: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  24. 67.
    UNEP. Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication – a Synthesis for Policy Makers. 2011 October 2011; Available from:
  25. 68.
    UNEP. What is the “Green Economy”? Green Economy Initiative 2012 [cited 2012]; Available from:
  26. 98.
    Etham, B., Australia’s Green Economic Potential. 2010, Centre for Policy Development: Sydney.Google Scholar
  27. 99.
    Tierney, S., High-speed rail, the knowledge economy and the next growth wave. Journal of Transport Geography, 2012. 22(0): pp. 285–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 100.
    UNEP, Briefing Paper Metrics & Indicators, United Nations Environmental Program Economics and Trade Branch, Editor. 2012, United Nations: Geneva.Google Scholar
  29. 101.
    UNEP, Briefing Paper Innovation, United Nations Environmental Program Economics and Trade Branch, Editor. 2012, United Nations: Geneva.Google Scholar
  30. 102.
    DESA. Working document. Sustainable Development Goals 2014 [cited 2014 May]; Available from:
  31. 103.
    Florida, R. 11 Reasons the UN Should Make Cities the Focus of Its Forthcoming Sustainable Development Goals. City Lab 2014 [cited 2014 May]; Available from:
  32. 104.
    Florida, R. What Makes Some Cities Greener Than Others. The Atlantic Cities 2012; Available from:
  33. 105.
    Florida, R. The Economic Strength of Cities. Aspen Ideas Conference 2012; Available from:
  34. 106.
    Kenworthy, J.R., The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development. Environment and Urbanization 2006. 18(67).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 107.
    Mathews, J., Cities will drive the green industrial revolution, in The Conversation 2012, The Conversation Media Trust: Melbourne.Google Scholar
  36. 108.
    Kostof, S., The City Assembled: The elements of urban form through history. 1992, New York, USA: Bulfinch Press.Google Scholar
  37. 109.
    Broadbent, G., Emerging Concepts in Urban Space Design. 1990, New York, USA: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  38. 49.
    Sitte, C., The art of building cities: city building according to its artistic fundamentals. 1945: Hyperion Press.Google Scholar
  39. 110.
    Geddes, P., Cities in Evolution, ed. Outlook Tower Association & Association for Planning and Regional Reconstruction. 1949, London: Williams and Norgate.Google Scholar
  40. 111.
    Mumford, L., The City in History. 1961, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.Google Scholar
  41. 112.
    Parsons, K.C., Collaborative Genius: The Regional Planning Association of America. Journal of the American Planning Association, 1994. 60(4): pp. 462–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 113.
    MacKaye, B., From Geography to Geotechnics. 1968: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  43. 114.
    MacKaye, B., The New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional Planning. 1990: Appalachian Trail Conference.Google Scholar
  44. 115.
    Place, M.T., Gifford Pinchot: the man who saved the forests. 1957: Messner.Google Scholar
  45. 5.
    Howard, E., Garden Cities of Tomorrow. 1902, London, UK: S. Sonnenschein & Co., Ltd.Google Scholar
  46. 116.
    Fishman, R., Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier. 1982: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  47. 32.
    Corbusier, L., The Radiant City: elements of a doctrine of urbanism to be used as the basis of our machine-age civilization. 1967, London, UK: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  48. 117.
    Marx, L., The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. 1967, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. 18.
    Wright, F.L., Broacacre City: A Community Plan. Architectural Record, 1935.Google Scholar
  50. 118.
    Alexander, C., S. Ishikawa, and M. Silverstein, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. 1977, Oregon, USA: Oregon University Press.Google Scholar
  51. 43.
    Duany, A., E. Plater-Zyberk, and R. Alminana, The new civic art: elements of town planning. 2003: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
  52. 44.
    Duany, A., et al., Towns and town-making principles. 1991: Harvard University Graduate School of Design.Google Scholar
  53. 2.
    Calthorpe, P., The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. 1993, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  54. 3.
    Kelbaugh, D., The Pedestrian pocket book: a new suburban design strategy. 1989: Princeton Architectural Press in association with the University of Washington.Google Scholar
  55. 27.
    Kelbaugh, D., Repairing the American Metropolis: Common Place Revisited. 2002: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  56. 40.
    Girling, C. and R. Kellett, Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods: Design for Environment and Community. 2005: Island Press.Google Scholar
  57. 119.
    McHarg, I.L., A Quest for Life: An Autobiography. 1996: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. 120.
    Steiner, F., Healing the earth: the relevance of Ian McHarg’s work for the future. Philosophy & Geography, 2004. 7(1).Google Scholar
  59. 78.
    McHarg, I., Design With Nature. 1995, Princeton, USA: San Val.Google Scholar
  60. 121.
    Fishman, R., The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy. 2000: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.Google Scholar
  61. 23.
    Cervero, R., The Transit Metropolis - A Global Inquiry. 1998, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  62. 122.
    Stockton, N. There’s a Science to Foot Traffic, and It Can Help Us Design Better Cities. Wired, 2014.Google Scholar
  63. 123.
    Blumler, M.A., Three Conflated definitions of Mediterranean Climates. Middle States Geographer, 2005. 38: pp. 52–60.Google Scholar
  64. 124.
    Fishman, R., The Open and the Enclosed: shifting paradigms in modern urban design, in Companion to Urban Design T. Banerjee and A. Loukaitou-Sideris, Editors. 2011, Routledge: Milton Park, Oxon.Google Scholar
  65. 125.
    Condon, P., Cubist Space, Volumetric Space, and Landscape Architecture. Landscape Journal, 1988. 7(1): pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 31.
    CNU. Closing Plenary: Charles Waldheim and Andres Duany Discuss Landscape Urbanism. CNU 19 Round Up 2011 [cited 2014 May]; Available from:
  67. 36.
    Waldheim, C., The landscape urbanism reader. 2006: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  68. 126.
    Waldheim, C. and A. Berger, Logistics Landscape. Landscape Journal 2008. 27(2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 39.
    Duany, A. and E. Talen, Landscape Urbanism and its Discontents: Dissimulating the Sustainable City. 2013: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  70. 127.
    Walton, J. Who defines livability. Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media, 2012. 54.Google Scholar
  71. 128.
    McDonald, R.A.J., City-Building in the Canadian West: A Case Study of Economic Growth in Early Vancouver, 1886–1893. BC Studies, 1979. 49.Google Scholar
  72. 129.
    Boddy, T., New Urbanism: “The Vancouver Model”. Places, 2004. 16(2).Google Scholar
  73. 130.
    Crampton, G.R. Economic Development Impacts of Urban Rail Transport. in ERSA Conference 2003. Jyvaskyla, Finland.Google Scholar
  74. 131.
    Suzuki, H., R. Cervero, and K. Iuchi, Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development, in Urban Development Series, The Wold Bank, Editor. 2013, The World Bank: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  75. 132.
    Cervero, R. and J. Murakami, Rail and Property Development in Hong Kong: Experiences and Extensions. Urban Studies, 2009. 46(10): pp. 2019–2043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 133.
    Zhang, M., The Role of Land Use in Travel Mode Choice: Evidence from Boston and Hong Kong. Journal of the American Planning Association, 2004. 70(3): pp. 344–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 134.
    UNEP, Transport: Investing in energy and resource efficiency, in Towards a Green Economy, H. Dalkmann and K. Sakamoto, Editors. 2011, United Nations Environment Program.Google Scholar
  78. 30.
    Speck, J., Walkable City: How Downtown can save America one step at a time. 2012, New York, USA: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    Frank, L.D. and P.O. Engelke, The Built Environment and Human Activity Patterns: Exploring the Impacts of Urban Form on Public Health. Journal of Planning Literature, 2001. 16(2): pp. 202–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 135.
    Ewing, R. and R. Cervero, Travel and the Built Environment: A Synthesis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2001. 1780(−1): pp. 87–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 136.
    Turner, C., Geography of Hope: A Tour of the World We Need. 2008, Toronto: Vintage Canada.Google Scholar
  82. 137.
    King, D., Developing densely: Estimating the effect of subway growth on New York City land uses. The Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2011. 4(2): pp. 19–32.Google Scholar
  83. 138.
    Owen, D., Green Manhattan: Why New York is the Greenest city in the U.S., in New Yorker. 2004, The New Yorker: New York.Google Scholar
  84. 139.
    Melia, S., G. Parkhurst, and H. Barton, The Paradox of Intensification. Transport Policy, 2011. 18 (1): pp. 46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 140.
    IBI Group, Hamilton Rapid Transit Initiative: Economic Potential Study, in Rapid Transit: Moving Hamilton Forward. 2009, City of Hamilton: Hamilton Canada.Google Scholar
  86. 141.
    Cervero, R., Mixed Land Use and Commuting: Evidence from the American Housing Survey. Transportation Research A, 1996. 30(5): pp. 361–377.Google Scholar
  87. 142.
    Kelly, J.-F., et al., Tomorrow’s Suburbs. 2012, Grattan Institute: Melbourne.Google Scholar
  88. 34.
    Dent, B., Australian Environments: Place, Pattern and Process. 1996: Macmillan Education Australia.Google Scholar
  89. 33.
    Cox, W. and J. Utt, The Costs of Sprawl Reconsidered: What the Data Really Show, Thomas A. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies, Editor. 2004, The Heritage Foundation: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  90. 143.
    Cox, W., Demographia World Urban Areas (Built Up Urban Area or World Agglomerations) 2014, Demographia: Belleville, Illinois.Google Scholar
  91. 144.
    O’Toole, R., Great Rail Disasters: The Impact of Rail Transit on Urban Livability. 2004, Center for the American Dream Independence Institute: Golden Colorado.Google Scholar
  92. 38.
    Jacobs, A. and D. Appleyard, Toward an Urban Design Manifesto. Journal of the American Planning Association, 1987. 53(1): pp. 112–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 145.
    Hall, P.G., Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. 2002: Wiley.Google Scholar
  94. 47.
    Weller, R., Boomtown 2050: Scenarios for a Growing City. 2009, Perth, Australia: UWAP.Google Scholar
  95. 48.
    Weller, R. and J. Bolleter, Made in Australia: The Future of Australian Cities. 2012, Perth, Australia: UWAP.Google Scholar
  96. 146.
    Belanger, P., Landscape Infrastructure: Urbanism beyond Engineering in Landscape Architecture. 2013, Wageningen University: Wageningen, Netherlands. p. 450.Google Scholar
  97. 147.
    1000 Friends, Making the Connection: Integrated land-use and transport planning for livable communities, 1000 Friends of Oregon, Editor. 1997, LUTRAQ: Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  98. 148.
    GVRD, Livable Region Strategic Plan. 1996, Greater Vancouver Regional District: Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  99. 149.
    Harcourt, M. and K. Cameron, City Making in Paradise: Nine Decisions That Saved Vancouver. 2007, Vancouver, Canada: Douglas & MCIntyre.Google Scholar
  100. 150.
    Hedgcock, D. and O. Yiftachel, Urban and regional planning in Western Australia: historical and critical perspectives. 1992: Paradigm Press.Google Scholar
  101. 151.
    Envision Utah, The History of Envision Utah. 2014, Envision Utah: Utah, USA.Google Scholar
  102. 152.
    Sundquist, E. New travel demand projections are due from U.S. DOT. Will they be accurate this time? 2014 [cited 2014 July ]; Available from:
  103. 153.
    ACNU and E. Jones, Realising Development Oriented Transit: Perth Light Rail Masterclass. 2012, Australian Council for New Urbanism: Perth.Google Scholar
  104. 154.
    UBC Studio, Vancouver - Streetcar City. 2010, University of British Columbia: Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  105. 155.
    RTA, Guide to Traffic Generating Developments., Roads and Traffic Authority NSW, Editor. 2002, Roads and Traffic Authority NSW.Google Scholar
  106. 156.
    Walker, J. The Real Barriers to Abundant, All-Day Transit Service. The Atlantic Cities, 2014. The Future of Transportation.Google Scholar
  107. 157.
    Buehler, R. and J. Pucher, Demand for Public Transport in Germany and the USA: An Analysis of Rider Characteristics. Transport Reviews, 2012. 32(5): pp. 541–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 158.
    McIntosh, J., R. Trubka, and Newman, P. 2014. Can value capture pay in a car depentent city? Willingness to pay for transit access in Perth, Western Australia. Transport Research Part A, 67, 320–339.Google Scholar
  109. 159.
    Zhao, P., B. Lu, and G.J.J. Linden, The Effects of Transport Accessibility and Jobs–Housing Balance on Commuting Time: Evidence from Beijing. International Planning Studies, 2009. 14(1): pp. 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 160.
    Fogarty, N., et al., Capturing the Value of Transit. 2008, United States Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
  111. 161.
    Bertolini, L., Spatial Development Patterns and Public Transport: The Application of an Analytical Model in the Netherlands. Planning Practice & Research, 1999. 14(2): pp. 199–210.Google Scholar
  112. 162.
    Scheurer, J. SNAMUTS. 2012 [cited 2014 January 10]; Available from:
  113. 163.
    Knight, R.L. and L. Trygg, Evidence of Land Use impacts of Rapid Transit Systems. Transport, 1977. 6: pp. 231–247.Google Scholar
  114. 164.
    Toderian, B., VeloCity Conference, C. Hendrigan, Editor. 2012: Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  115. 165.
    IPCC, 2013. Chapter 8: Transport, in INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (ed.) Working Group III – Mitigation of Climate Change. New York, USA: United Nations.Google Scholar
  116. 166.
    BITRE, Traffic Growth: Modelling a Global Phenomenon, in Research Report. 2012, Bureau of Infrastructure Transport and Regional Economics,: Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  117. 167.
    Cervero, R., Built Environment and Mode Choice: Towards a Normative Framework. Transportation Research Part D, 2002. 7: pp. 265–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 168.
    Cervero, R., Road Expansion, Urban Growth, and Induced Travel: A Path Analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association, 2003. 69(2): pp. 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 169.
    Shoup, D., The trouble with minimum parking requirements. Transportation Research Part A 1999. 33: pp. 549–574.Google Scholar
  120. 170.
    Shoup, D., The High Cost of Free Parking. 2011: Planners Press, American Planning Association.Google Scholar
  121. 55.
    Frank, L.D., et al., An Assessment of Urban Form and Pedestrian and Transit Improvements as an Integrated GHG Reduction Strategy, in Washington State Department of Transport. 2011. p. 57.Google Scholar
  122. 56.
    Frank, L.D. and G. Pivo, Impacts of Mixed Use and Density on Utilization of Three Modes of Travel: Single-Occupant Vehicle, Transit, and Walking. Transportation Research Record, 1994. 1466: pp. 44–52.Google Scholar
  123. 63.
    Frank, L.D., M.A. Andresen, and T.L. Schmid, Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2004. 27(2): pp. 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 171.
    Hoehner, C., et al., Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2005. 28: pp. 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 172.
    Kamphuis, C., et al., Perceived environmental determinants of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among high and low socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands. Health & Place, 2007. 13: pp. 493–503.Google Scholar
  126. 173.
    Kerr, J., et al., Urban form correlates of pedestrian travel in youth: Differences by gender, race-ethnicity and household attributes. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2007. 12(3): pp. 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 174.
    Kozawa, K.H., A.M. Winer, and S.A. Fruin, Ultrafine particle size distributions near freeways: Effects of differing wind directions on exposure. Atmospheric Environment, 2012. 63(0): pp. 250–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 175.
    Maas, J., et al., Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: A multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health, 2008. 8(1): pp. 206.Google Scholar
  129. 176.
    Montgomery, B. and P. Roberts, Walk Urban: Demand, Constraints and Measurements of the Urban Pedestrian Environment. 2008.Google Scholar
  130. 177.
    Rutten, A., Self reported physical activity, public health and perceived environment: results from a comparative European study. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health, 2001. 55: pp. 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 178.
    Takano, T., K. Nakamura, and M. Watanabe, Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas. The importance of walkable green spaces. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 2002. 56: pp. 913–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 179.
    Townshend, T. and A.A. Lake, Obesogenic urban form: Theory, policy and practice. Health & Place, 2009. 15(4): pp. 909–916.Google Scholar
  133. 20.
    Newman, P., The Perth Rail Transformation: Some political lessons learned. 2011, CUSP: Fremantle.Google Scholar
  134. 51.
    Marohn, C., Thoughts on Building Strong Towns. 2012: Createspace Independent.Google Scholar
  135. 54.
    Wackernagel, M. and W.E. Rees, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. 2013: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  136. 180.
    Bertolini, L. and F. le Clerc, Urban development without more mobility by car? Lessons from Amsterdam, a multimodal urban region. Environment and Planning A, 2003. 35: pp. 575–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 181.
    Ewing, R. and R. Cervero, Travel and the Built Environment. Journal of the American Planning Association 2010. 76(3): pp. 265–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 182.
    Garreau, J., Edge City: Life on the New Frontier 1991, New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  139. 183.
    OzInsure. Car Cost Calculator. 2012 [cited 2012 November 5]; Available from:
  140. 184.
    Reps, J.W., The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States. 1965: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  141. 185.
    Trubka, R., P. Newman, and D. Bilsborough, The Cost of Urban Sprawl - Physical Activity Links to Healthcare Costs and Productivity. Environment Design Guide, 2009. GEN 85(April 2010): pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  142. 186.
    CIE, The benefits and costs of alternative growth paths for Sydney: Economic, social and environmental impacts NSW Department of Planning, Editor. 2010, The Centre for International Economics: Sydney NSW.Google Scholar
  143. 187.
    Dodson, J. and N. Sipe, Unsettling Suburbia: The New Landscape of Oil and Mortgage Vulnerability in Australian Cities, in Urban Research Program. 2008, Griffith University: Brisbane.Google Scholar
  144. 4.
    Dittmar, H. and G. Ohland, The New Transit Town. 2004, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  145. 45.
    Duany, A., E. Plater-Zyberk, and J. Speck, Suburban Nation: The rise of sprawland the decline of the American dream. 2000, New York, USA: North Point Press.Google Scholar
  146. 59.
    Condon, P. and S. Hein, eds. A Convenience Truth. A Sustainable Vancouver by 2050. 2011, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture and the School of Community and Regional Planning: Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  147. 72.
    Benfield, K. ‘Green’ sprawl is still sprawl. Switchboard, 2013.Google Scholar
  148. 75.
    Condon, P., Seven Rules for Sustainable Communities. Design strategies for the post-carbon world. 2010, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  149. 188.
    Benfield, K., Suburban sprawl could destroy up to 34 million acres of forests, in Switchboard, N.R.D. Council, Editor. 2013: Washington.Google Scholar
  150. 189.
    Condon, P., D. Cavens, and N. Miller, Urban Planning Tools for Climate Change Mitigation. Policy Focus Report Series. 2009, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.Google Scholar
  151. 190.
    Cooper Marcus, C. and C. Francis, eds. People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Spaces. 1998, Van Nostrom Reinhold: New York.Google Scholar
  152. 191.
    Newton, P., ed. Transitions. Pathways towards sustainable urban development in Australia. 2008, CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood, Victoria.Google Scholar
  153. 192.
    Kunstler, J., The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made Landscape. 1993, Glencoe Illinois: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  154. 193.
    Tuan, Y.F., Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. 1977: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  155. 194.
    Bachelard, G., The Poetics of Space. 1994: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  156. 195.
    Newman, P., J. Kenworthy, and G. Glazebrook, Peak Car Use and the Rise of Global Rail: Why This Is Happening and What It Means for Large and Small Cities. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2013. 3(4): pp. 272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 196.
    Short, D. Vehicle Miles Driven: Another Population-Adjusted Low. 2014 [cited 2014 May 9]; Available from:
  158. 197.
    Rockefeller Foundation. Public Transportation Shapes Where Millennials Decide to Live. 2014 [cited 2014 May 8]; Available from:
  159. 198.
    Global Strategy Group, Rockefeller Millennials Survey. 2014, The Rockefeller Foundation: New York, USA.Google Scholar
  160. 199.
    Marchetti, C., Anthropological invariants in travel behavior. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 1994. 47(1): pp. 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 200.
    Perkins, S., Green Growth and Transport. 2011, International Transport Forum: Paris.Google Scholar
  162. 201.
    Castelazo, M.D. and T.A. Garrett. Light Rail: Boon or Boondoggle? The Regional Economist 2004; Available from:
  163. 21.
    Newman, P., G. Glazebrook, and J. Kenworthy, The Rise and Rise of Global Rail: Why this is happening and what it means for large and small cities. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2013. 3: pp. 272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 22.
    Bertolini, L. and T. Spit, Cities on Rails. The redevelopment of railway station areas. 1998, New York Routledge.Google Scholar
  165. 28.
    Litman, T. Transit Oriented Development: Using Public Transit to Create More Accessible and Livable Neighborhoods. TDM Encyclopedia 2012 [cited 2012 November 22]; Available from:
  166. 57.
    Cervero, R., Land-Use Mixing and Suburban Mobility. Transportation Quarterly, 1988. 42(3): pp. 429–446.Google Scholar
  167. 202.
    Curtis, C., Evolution of the Transit-oriented Development Model for Low-density Cities: A Case Study of Perth’s New Railway Corridor. Planning Practice & Research, 2008. 23(3): pp. 285–302.Google Scholar
  168. 203.
    Curtis, C., J.L. Renne, and L. Bertolini, eds. Transit Oriented Development: Making it Happen. Transport and Mobility series, ed. B.K. Graham, Richard. 2009, Ashgate: Surrey, UK.Google Scholar
  169. 204.
    Newman, P., T. Beatley, and H. Boyer, Resilient Cities: Responding to Peak Oil and Climate Change. 2009, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  170. 205.
    Bertolini, L. and M. Dijst, Mobility Environments and Network Cities. Journal of Urban Design, 2003. 8(1): pp. 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 206.
    Eidlin, E., What Density Doesn’t Tell Us About Sprawl. Access, 2010. 37(Fall).Google Scholar
  172. 207.
    Messenger, T. and R. Ewing, Transit-Oriented Development in the Sun Belt. Transportation Research Record, 1996. 1552.Google Scholar
  173. 208.
    Porta, S. and J.L. Renne, Linking urban design to sustainability: formal indicators of social urban sustainability field research in Perth, Western Australia. Urban Design International, 2005. 10(1): pp. 51.Google Scholar
  174. 209.
    Renne, J.L., From transit-adjacent to transit-oriented development. Local Environment, 2008. 14(1): pp. 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 210.
    Thompson, G.L. and J.R. Brown, Making a Successful LRT-Based Regional Transit System: Lessons from Five New Start Cities. Journal of Public Transportation, 2012. 15(2).Google Scholar
  176. 211.
    Topalovic, P., et al., Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis. Social Indicators Research, 2012. 108: pp. 329–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 41.
    Roseland, M., Towards Sustainable Communities. 2005, Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  178. 50.
    Smart Growth BC. 10 Smart Growth Principles. 2012; Available from:
  179. 212.
    Bruggman, J., Welcome to the Urban Revolution: How Cities Are Changing the World. 2009, London, UK: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  180. 213.
    Gehl, J., Cities for People. 2010, Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  181. 214.
    Krier, L., The Architecture of Community. 2009, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  182. 215.
    MTI, Envisioning Neighborhoods with Transit-Oriented Development Potential, Mineta Transportation Institute, Editor. 2002, San José State University: San Jose, CA.Google Scholar
  183. 24.
    Renne, J.L., From transit-adjacent to transit-oriented development. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 2009. 14(1): pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  184. 61.
    Vuchic, V.R., Urban Transit. Systems and Technology. 2007, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  185. 216.
    Newman, P., The Perth Rail Transformation: Some political lessons learned. CUSP, Editor. 2012, Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute Fremantle, Western Australia.Google Scholar
  186. 217.
    Cervero, R. and A. Golub, Informal Transport: A Global Perspective. Transport Policy, 2007(14): pp. 445–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 218.
    Litman, T., Evaluating rail transit benefits: A comment. Transport Policy, 2007. 14(1): pp. 94–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 219.
    Taylor, S., Introduction, in Light Rail Transit TRB, Editor. 1975, Transport Research Board: Washington, DC. pp. 1.Google Scholar
  189. 220.
    SGS Planning and Economics. ‘Expanding land supply’ through transport improvements. 2013 [cited 2014 February]; Available from:
  190. 221.
    Manville, M. and D.C. Shoup, Parking, People, and Cities. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 2005. 131(4): pp. 233–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 19.
    Glaeser, E., Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier. 2011: Penguin Group US.Google Scholar
  192. 222.
    Graham, D., Agglomeration Economics and Transport Investment, in Discussion Paper, Joint Transport Research Centre, Editor. 2007, OECD: London, UK.Google Scholar
  193. 223.
    Trubka, R., Agglomeration Economies in Australian Cities: Productivity benefits of increasing density and accessibility by way of urban and transport infrastructure planning., in Humanities. 2011, Curtin University: Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  194. 224.
    Salat, S., F. Labbé, and C. Nowacki, Cities and Forms: On Sustainable Urbanism. 2011, Paris, France: CSTB Urban Morphology Laboratory.Google Scholar
  195. 225.
    Edwards, R.D., Public transit, obesity, and medical costs: Assessing the magnitudes. Preventive Medicine, 2008. 46(1): pp. 14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 226.
    Stokes, R.J., J. MacDonald, and G. Ridgeway, Estimating the effects of light rail transit on health care costs. Health & Place, 2008. 14(1): pp. 45–58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cole Hendrigan
    • 1
  1. 1.SMART Infrastructure FacilityUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations