Smart Cities and Smart Citizens: Are They the Same?

  • Cole Hendrigan


Smart Cities is the current planning theory of the day. Despite the very fixed character of a city, its slow-to-change ‘personality’, and the revealed preferences of people which are resistant to change, there are trends in city planning. Yet, the promise of an interconnected city, with streams of useful data—numbers—on people’s activity to the benefit of the same citizens is promising. But we should be aware that though we have the quantitative numbers of things, we still often do have the qualitative characteristics of these same items to know what gives residents greater satisfaction. Quality of the cities we are building matters if we want citizens to use, enjoy and love the city they work in.


  1. 73.
    Mitchell, W.J., City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. 1996, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. 74.
    Stevanovic, A., Adaptive Traffic Control Systems: Domestic and Foreign State of Practice, in NCHRP Synthesis T.R. Board, Editor. 2010, Transportation Research Board.Google Scholar
  3. 42.
    Ewing, R. and O. Clemente, Measuring Urban Design: Metrics for Liveable Places. 2013, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  4. 63.
    Frank, L.D., M.A. Andresen, and T.L. Schmid, Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2004. 27(2): pp. 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 65.
    Giles-Corti, B. and R. Donovan, Relative Influences of individual, social environmental, and physical environmental correlates of walking. American Journal of Public Health, 2003. 93: pp. 1583–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 75.
    Condon, P., Seven Rules for Sustainable Communities. Design strategies for the post-carbon world. 2010, Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  7. 76.
    Frank, L.D. and P.O. Engelke, The Built Environment and Human Activity Patterns: Exploring the Impacts of Urban Form on Public Health. Journal of Planning Literature, 2001. 16(2): pp. 202–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 77.
    Giles-Corti, B., et al., Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2005. 28(2): pp. 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 78.
    McHarg, I., Design With Nature. 1995, Princeton, USA: San Val.Google Scholar
  10. 79.
    Sadik-Khan, J. and S. Solomonow, Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution. 2017: Penguin Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  11. 80.
    Whyte, W., City. Rediscovering the Center. 1988, New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  12. 81.
    Montgomery, C., Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design. 2014: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  13. 82.
    Ehrenhalt, A., The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City. 2012: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cole Hendrigan
    • 1
  1. 1.SMART Infrastructure FacilityUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations