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Noninvasive Imaging Techniques of Metal Nanoparticles and Their Future Diagnostic Applications

  • Sourav Das
  • Rajesh Kotcherlakota
  • Chitta Ranjan PatraEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Bio-imaging offers visualization of complex living systems for clinical diagnosis and detection of the diseases. The critical challenges that are associated with conventional contrasting agents or imaging probes are toxic effects and shorter circulation time in the body. Therefore, bio-imaging requires advancements in imaging probes and contrast agents for better understanding of the biological architectures to diagnose the disease. Recent advancements of nanoscience and nanotechnology have changed the paradigm of bio-imaging by providing the better resolution, high contrast images to diagnose the diseases at the molecular level. Also, nanotechnology offers the theranostic approach to diagnose and treat the disease using various nanomaterials that are functionalized with imaging agents and therapeutic molecules. In fact, various imaging techniques are now employing nanomaterials as sole source of imaging signal rather using as contrast objective. The present review article mainly focuses on the application of various nanomaterials in imaging modalities including MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), Raman based, luminescence upconversion imaging, CT (computed tomography), fluorescence imaging, etc. Additionally, we also review the recent advancements that occurred with the help of nanomaterials in each of these imaging techniques. Further, present clinical status of nanomaterials as imaging agents will also be discussed. We conclude with the various challenges associated with nanomaterials for clinical translation as imaging agents. Finally, we focus the insights of nanoparticle-based bio-imaging for future diagnostic applications.

Keywords

Bio-imaging Nanomaterials Contrast agents Imaging probes Diagnosis 

Abbreviations

ABC

Accelerated blood clearance

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

AuNPs

Gold nanoparticles

CARS

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

CeO2

Cerium dioxide

CNS

Central nervous system

CT

Computed tomography

ESIONs

Extremely small iron oxide nanoparticles

FDA

Food and drug administration

FITC

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

FRET

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer

GBNs

Gadolinium based-nanoparticles

GSH

Glutathione

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

IGT

Image guided therapy

LLC

Lewis lung carcinoma

MAP

Maximum intensity projections

MCS

Merocyanines

MPR

Magnetic resonance-photoacoustic-Raman

MRgFUS

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRS

Magnetic relaxation switch

MSOT

Multispectral optoacoustic tomography

NIH

NIH-3T3- Mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line

OCT

Optical coherence tomography

PAA

Polyacrylic acid

PAI

Photoacoustic imaging

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PLGA

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

PSMA

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

QDs

Quantum dots

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

SERS

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

SiNPs

Silica nanoparticles

SKOV3

Human breast cancer cell line

SLN

Sentinel lymph node

SPIONs

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

SP-PCL

Spiropyran-terminated poly(ε-caprolactone)

Ti(SP)4

Tetra spiropyran titanate

TiO2

Titanium oxide

UCL

Upconversion luminescence

UCNPs

Upconversion nanoparticles

ZnO

Zinc oxide

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-IICT for his support and encouragement and for his keen interest in this work. IICT communication number IICT/Pubs./2019/113 dated March 25th 2019 for this manuscript is duly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sourav Das
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rajesh Kotcherlakota
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chitta Ranjan Patra
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied BiologyCSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)GhaziabadIndia

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