Marine Microbes in Bioremediation: Current Status and Future Trends

  • Neetu Sharma
  • Abhinashi Singh
  • Sonu Bhatia
  • Navneet Batra
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 16)


As per evolutionary studies, life was believed to be originated in the marine environment. About 70% of earth’s surface is covered with water which hosts a wide variety of life forms under extreme conditions. Vast research has been carried out to explore the terrestrial habitats for a variety of products, but the marine environment still remains little explored. The marine microorganisms have undergone great evolutionary changes due to variable and extreme marine conditions. Hence enzymes from marine microflora bear novel properties with wide applications in multidisciplinary areas. Due to highly challenging environmental conditions, the aquatic ecosystem inhabits microorganisms that produce enzymes having unique/novel characteristics such as thermostability, cold adaptability, high pressure, pH, and extreme salt tolerance. Desulfurococcus sp., Pyrococcus sp., Thermococcus sp., and Geobacillus sp. are aquatic producers of thermostable amylases, peptidases, and lipases. Cold-active enzymes such as beta-glycosidases and peptidases have been isolated from psychrophiles inhabiting in cold marine areas such as deep-sea muds. Other polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are also well studied in aquatic systems including chitinase, alginate lyases, agarases, carrageenans, and cellulose hydrolases. Halophilic microbes from waters of the Pacific Ocean, Black Sea, and Mediterranean Sea have been explored for enzymes like beta-D-galactosidase, alpha-D-galactosidase, etc. These enzymes have a wide range of applicability in pulp and paper, biofuel, food, and textile industry, replacing the conventional processes and making the process eco-friendly and cost-effective. Further fungal enzymes lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase can be used in the treatment and bioremediation of industrial effluents and wastewater contaminants which escapes traditional treatment processes. This chapter deals with the review of the research work associated with the present scenario of marine microbes in bioremediation and their future trends.


Bioremediation Oxygenases Degradation Pollutants Marine enzymes 



The authors are thankful to the Goswami Ganesh Dutta Sanatan Dharma College, Chandigarh for providing the facilities.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neetu Sharma
    • 1
  • Abhinashi Singh
    • 1
  • Sonu Bhatia
    • 1
  • Navneet Batra
    • 1
  1. 1.GGDSD CollegeChandigarhIndia

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