Urine pp 49-63 | Cite as

Application of Peptide Level and Posttranslational Modifications to Integrative Analyses in Proteomics

  • Yongtao Liu
  • Jianrui Yin


In a bottom-up strategy, peptide sequences are first identified from MS/MS spectra, and the existence and abundance of the proteins are then inferred from the peptide information. At the same time, posttranslational modifications also play an important role in peptide matching. However, the protein inference step can produce errors and a loss of information. In addition, the genes and proteins are highly homologous in some species, such as human and mouse; if different species of proteins are mixed in one sample, it is difficult to find the difference from protein level alone. In this part, we try to demonstrate the importance of integrative analysis of peptide level and posttranslational modifications in proteomics by two examples.


Peptide level Posttranslational modifications PDX model Unenriched sample Open Search 



Part of this chapter is based on published articles: [1] Yongtao Liu, Youzhu Wang, Zhixiang Cao, and Youhe Gao, Changes in the urinary proteome in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) nude mouse model of colorectal tumor, Scientific report, 2019,9(1): 4975, and [2] Yin, Jianrui, Chen Shao, Lulu Jia, and Youhe Gao, Comparison at the peptide level with posttranslational modification consideration reveals more differences between two unenriched samples, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 2014,28 (12):1364-70.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongtao Liu
    • 1
  • Jianrui Yin
    • 2
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drugs and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Tsinghua Changgung HospitalBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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