Urine pp 119-134 | Cite as

Urine Is an Ideal Biomarker Resource in Early Detecting Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • Jing Wei


Neurodegenerative diseases include many different types. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable age-associated neurodegenerative disorder, which characterized by irreversible cognitive deficits and brain damage. Therefore, identification of candidate biomarkers before amyloid-β plaque deposition occurs is therefore of great importance for the early intervention of AD. Multiple sclerosis (MScl) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is difficult to diagnose in early stages. Without homeostatic mechanisms regulation, urine has the potential to accumulate changes in the whole body, which associated with AD and MScl earlier than cerebrospinal fluid and blood. This chapter highlights candidate urine biomarkers to detect AD before amyloid-β plaque deposition in the APP (swe)/PSEN1dE9 transgenic mouse model and to detect MScl when the clinical scores in the EAE group were 0 and no obvious histological changes were observed in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rat model. There were 29 urinary proteins changed in 4-month-old APP (swe)/PSEN1dE9 transgenic mice, which had not started to deposit amyloid-β plaque, 15 had been reported to be associated with AD, while 9 had been identified as AD biomarkers before. Thirty-one urinary proteins were altered in the 7-day experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rat model, and 17 of them were associated with neurological functions.


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) Multiple sclerosis (MScl) Urine proteome Early detection 



Part of this chapter is based on published articles: Fanshuang Zhang∗, Jing Wei∗, Xundou Li∗, Chao Ma#, and Youhe Gao#. Early Candidate Urine Biomarkers for Detecting Alzheimer’s Disease Before Amyloid-beta Plaque Deposition in an APP (swe)/PSEN1dE9 Transgenic Mouse Model [J]. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease, 2018, 66(2): 613–637.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Wei
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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