Urine pp 3-8 | Cite as

Urine Is Not a Human Waste but a Medical Treasure

  • Youhe Gao


A biomarker is a measurable change associated with the biological process (including continuously from healthy normal stage to disease stage). Controlled by homeostatic mechanisms of the body, all cell bathing in body fluids, mainly blood and cerebral spinal fluid, tend to remove early changes. Wastes of the body, such as urine and breath, accumulating all kinds of early changes, are better biomarker sources.


Urine Early disease biomarker Next-generation biomarker 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youhe Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Life SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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