Bovine Herpesvirus

  • Niraj K. Singh
  • Sachin S. Pawar
  • Anuj Tyagi
  • Praveen K. Gupta


Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an economically significant pathogen of livestock industry worldwide. The virus belongs to genus Varicellovirus under family Herpesviridae. The double-stranded DNA genome of BoHV-1 consists of approximately 135.3 kbp. Cattle is the primary host of BoHV-1 but other Artiodactyla like goats, sheep, water buffaloes and camelids are also susceptible to BoHV-1 infection. The virus has different stages of infection. The virus replicates at the entry portal or within the mucosa of nasal tract or genitalia, and from there the virus may enter into the nerve axons. Afterwards, through intra-axonal transportation, the virus goes to the neuron bodies of the regional ganglia and may remain in latency stage. During the stress conditions, latent form of BoHV-1 may revert back to activated form to cause clinical infections. With the beginning of virus replication, the host immune response to virus infection is activated. Seven days post-infection, predominant antibody-mediated humoral (AMI) and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses arise. While AMI plays a critical part in prevention of viral spread and infection, CMI has a role in recovery from infection. BoHV-1 diagnosis is usually carried out using either serologic tests or by molecular diagnostic methods. The serologic tests involved either detection of virus/viral components or antibodies against virus. The molecular diagnostic methods involved detection of viral genome. The vaccines for BoHV-1 are the modified or attenuated vaccines (live vaccines) or inactivated (killed vaccines). In recent years, deletion mutant-based marker vaccines by removing one or more proteins have also been reported.


Bovine herpesvirus Latency Antibody-mediated humoral immune response Cell-mediated immune response Serologic diagnostic tests Molecular diagnostic tests Live vaccines Inactivated vaccines Marker vaccines 



All the authors of the manuscript acknowledge the support of their respective universities and institutes. We are thankful to Editor, Indian Journal of Animal Health for allowing the use of article figures.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niraj K. Singh
    • 1
  • Sachin S. Pawar
    • 2
  • Anuj Tyagi
    • 3
  • Praveen K. Gupta
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Animal BiotechnologyGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Abiotic Stress ManagementPuneIndia
  3. 3.College of FisheriesGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  4. 4.Division of Veterinary BiotechnologyICAR-Indian Veterinary Research InstituteIzatnagarIndia

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