Heavy Metal Immunoassay in Food

  • Chuanlai XuEmail author
  • Hua Kuang
  • Liguang Xu


This chapter introduces the overview of heavy metal classification, hazard, and the maximum residue levels in the food. Then, the design of haptens for producing heavy metal antibodies was compared in this chapter. The acquired antibodies targeted to different heavy metal have high specificity and sensitivity, which have been characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the pretreatment methods of different food samples were presented for the application of ELISA for detection of heavy metal. The colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were also described with different detection ranges and cut-off values. Finally, the perspective of immnunoassays for heavy metal analysis was discussed. As an alternative tool for fast detection heavy metal on-site, there are still lack of effective pretreatment method. Therefore, developing a high-efficiency and simple extraction method is the key factor for heavy metal immunoassays.


  1. 1.
    Reardan DT, Meares CF, Goodwin DA, McTigue M, David GS, Stone MR, Leung JP, Bartholomew RM, Frincke JM (1985) Antibodies against metal chelates. Nature 316:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khosraviani M, Pavlov AR, Flowers GC, Blake DA (1998) Detection of heavy metals by immunoassay: optimization and validation of a rapid, portable assay for ionic cadmium. Environ Sci Technol 32:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou Y, Tian XL, Li YS, Pan FG, Zhang YY, Zhang JH, Yang L, Wang XR, Ren HL, Lu SY, Li ZH, Chen QJ, Liu ZS, Liu JQ (2011) An enhanced ELISA based on modified colloidal gold nanoparticles for the detection of Pb(II). Biosens Bioelectron 26(8):3700–3704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lou Y, Yang F, Zhu X, Liu F (2009) Production of a specific monoclonal antibody against mercury-chelate complexes and its application in antibody-based assays. Food Agric Immunol 20(1):23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuang H, Xing C, Hao C, Liu L, Wang L, Xu C (2013) Rapid and highly sensitive detection of lead ions in drinking water based on a strip immunosensor. Sensors 13(4):4214–4224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khosraviani M, Blake RC II, Pavlov AR, Lorbach SC, Yu H, Delehanty JB, Brechbiel MW, Blake DA (2000) Binding properties of a monoclonal antibody directed toward lead-chelate complexes. Bioconjug Chem 11(2):267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xing C, Kuang H, Hao C, Liu L, Wang L, Xu C (2014) A silver enhanced and sensitive strip sensor for cadmium detection. Food Agric Immunol 25(2):287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Darwish IA, Blake DA (2001) One-step competitive immunoassay for cadmium ions: development and validation for environmental water samples. Anal Chem 73(8):1889–1895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blake DA, Chakrabarti P, Khosraviani M, Hatcher FM, Westhoff CM, Goebel P, Wylie DE, Blake RC II (1996) Metal binding properties of a monoclonal antibody directed toward metal-chelate complexes. J Biol Chem 271(44):27677–27685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang Y, Li X, Liu G, Wang Z, Kong T, Tang J, Zhag P, Yang W, Li D, Liu L, Xie G, Wang J (2011) Development of ELISA for detection of mercury based on specific monoclonal antibodies against mercury-chelate. Biol Trace Elem Res 144(1–3):854–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xing C, Liu L, Zhang X, Kuang H, Xu C (2014) Colorimetric detection of mercury based on a strip sensor. Anal Methods 6(16):6247–6253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Date Y, Aota A, Terakado S, Sasaki K, Matsumoto N, Watanabe Y, Matsue T, Ohmura N (2012) Trace-level mercury ion (Hg2+) analysis in aqueous sample based on solid-phase extraction followed by microfluidic immunoassay. Anal Chem 85(1):434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wylie DE, Lu D, Carlson LD, Carlson R, Babacan KF, Schuster SM, Wagner FW (1992) Monoclonal antibodies specific for mercuric ions. J Immunol Methods 89:4104–4108Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marx A, Hock B (1998) Characterization of a new monoclonal antibody against mercury(II). Anal Lett 31(10):1633–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang YZ, Yang H, Pschenitza M, Niessner R, Li Y, Knopp D, Deng AP (2012) Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody. Anal Bioanal Chem 403(9):2519–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zou S, Cui G, Liu L, Song S, Kuang H (2017) Development of ic-ELISA and an immunochromatographic strip assay for the detection of methylmercury. Food Agric Immunol 28(4):699–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sasaki K, Oguma S, Namiki Y, Ohmura N (2009) Monoclonal antibody to trivalent chromium chelate complex and its application to measurement of the total chromium concentration. Anal Chem 81(10):4005–4009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xing C, Feng M, Hao C, Xu L, Wang L, Xu C (2013) Visual sensor for the detection of trace Cu (II) ions using an immunochromatographic strip. Immunol Invest 42(3):221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rodrigues LF, Paz de Mattos JC, Dressler VL, Pozebon D, de Moraes Flores ÉM (2007) Determination of cadmium, copper and lead in alumina based catalysts by direct solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta Part B 62(9):933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller-Ihli NJ (1996) Trace element determinations in foods and biological samples using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 44:2675–2679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Todolí JL, Mermet JM (2006) Sample introduction systems for the analysis of liquid microsamples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Spectrochim Acta Part B 61(3):239–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu F, Lou Y, Shi X, Wang H, Zhu X (2013) Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibody specific for copper–chelate complex. J Immunol Methods 387(1–2):228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kong T, Li XB, Liu GW, Xie GH, Wang Z, Zhang ZG, Zhang Y, Sun J, Tang J (2012) Preparation of specific monoclonal antibodies against chelated copper ions. Biol Trace Elem Res 145(3):388–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhao HW, Xue CG, Nan TG, Tan GY, Li ZH, Li QX, Zhang QC, Wang BM (2010) Detection of copper ions using microcantilever immunosensors and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anal Chim Acta 676(1–2):81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhu XX, Hu BS, Lou Y, Xu LN, Yang FL, Yu HN, Blake DA, Liu FQ (2007) Characterization of monoclonal antibodies for lead–chelate complexes: applications in antibody-based assays. J Agric Food Chem 55:4993–4998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu X, Xiang J-J, Tang Y, Zhang X-L, Fu Q-Q, Zou J-H, Lin Y (2012) Colloidal gold nanoparticle probe-based immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of chromium ions in water and serum samples. Anal Chim Acta 745:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jones RM, Yu HN, Delehanty JB, Blake DA (2002) Monoclonal antibodies that recognize minimal differences in the three-dimensional structures of metal-chelate complexes. Bioconjug Chem 13(3):408–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wylie DE, Carlson LD, Carlson R, Wagner FW, Schuster SM (1991) Detection of mercuric ions in water by ELISA with a mercury-specific antibody. Anal Biochem 194(2):381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    He H, Wu F, Xu M, Yang S, Sun C, Yang Y (2011) Development and validation of a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of mercury in aqueous solution. Anal Methods 3(8):1859–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blake DA, Blake Ii RC, Khosraviani M, Pavlov AR (1998) Immunoassays for metal ions. Anal Chim Acta 376(1):13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xing C, Hao C, Liu L, Xu C, Kuang H (2014) A highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for copper (II) determination in drinking water. Food Agric Immunol 25(3):432–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sun M, Li P, Jin X, Ju X, Yan W, Yuan J, Xing C (2018) Heavy metal adsorption onto graphene oxide, amino group on magnetic nanoadsorbents and application for detection of Pb(II) by strip sensor. Food Agric Immunol 29(1):1053–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhu Z, Chen S, Wu X, Xing C, Yuan J (2018) Determination of soybean routine quality parameters using near-infrared spectroscopy. Food Sci Nutr 6(4):1109–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu L, Xing C, Yan H, Kuang H, Xu C (2014) Development of an ELISA and immunochromatographic strip for highly sensitive detection of microcystin-LR. Sensors 14(8):14672–14685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lopez Marzo AM, Pons J, Blake DA, Merkoci A (2013) All-integrated and highly sensitive paper based device with sample treatment platform for Cd2+ immunodetection in drinking/tap waters. Anal Chem 85(7):3532–3538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abe K, Nakamura K, Arao T, Sakurai Y, Nakano A, Suginuma C, Tawarada K, Sasaki K (2011) Immunochromatography for the rapid determination of cadmium concentrations in wheat grain and eggplant. J Sci Food Agric 91(8):1392–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sasaki K, Yongvongsoontorn N, Tawarada K, Ohnishi Y, Arakane T, Kayama F, Abe K, Oguma S, Ohmura N (2009) Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography. J Agric Food Chem 57(11):4514–4519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhou Y, Tian XL, Li YS, Zhang YY, Yang L, Zhang JH, Wang XR, Lu SY, Ren HL, Liu ZS (2011) A versatile and highly sensitive probe for Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) detection individually and totally in water samples. Biosens Bioelectron 30(1):310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina

Personalised recommendations