Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Polyphenols

  • Muddasarul Hoda
  • Shanmugam Hemaiswarya
  • Mukesh Doble


Polyphenols possess numerous biological effects but have low oral bioavailability since they are extensively metabolized by phase 1 (CYP P450 family) and phase 2 (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, sulfotransferases) enzymes in the enterocytes, liver, and also by gut microbiota. In addition they also have poor aqueous solubility. Bioavailability and pharmacodynamic action of the polyphenol and its metabolites are dependent on the interaction between the transporter proteins, metabolic enzymes, gut microbiota, host factors, source, and properties of the polyphenol.


Bioavailability Gut microbiota Transporter proteins Phase 1 metabolism Phase 2 metabolism Pharmacokinetic parameters 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muddasarul Hoda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shanmugam Hemaiswarya
    • 1
  • Mukesh Doble
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesAliah UniversityKolkataIndia

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