Fungus-Mediated Nanoparticles: Characterization and Biomedical Advances

  • S. Rajeshkumar
  • D. Sivapriya


Development of nature-friendly approaches for synthesis of nanoparticles by favorable microorganisms—for example, using fungal cultures—has played an important role in nanotechnology. Two types of synthesis have been established: intracellular synthesis and extracellular synthesis. Intracellular synthesis involves carriage of ions into microbial cells to form nanoparticles in the presence of enzymes. Extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles involves trapping of ions on the surface of cells and reducing the ions in the presence of enzymes. These methods have been applied to agriculture, drug delivery systems, biomedicines, etc. They are able to produce nanoparticles for nanostructure combinations with organic or inorganic chemicals. The fungal mediated nanoparticles are characterized using some analytical techniques are demonstrated. Their size and shape can be estimated by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.


Biosynthesis Fungus Nanoparticles Characterization Applications 


  1. Ahmad A, et al. Enzyme mediated extracellular synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124(41):12108–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andries M, et al. The effect of visible light on gold nanoparticles and some bioeffects on environmental fungi. Int J Pharm. 2016;505(1–2):255–61. Scholar
  3. Balaji DS, et al. Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2009;68(1):88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barabadi H, et al. Microbial mediated preparation, characterization and optimization of gold nanoparticles. Braz J Microbiol. 2014;45(4):1493–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Basavaraja S, et al. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum. Mater Res Bull. 2008;43(5):1164–70.Google Scholar
  6. Castro ME, Cottet L, Castillo A. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by extracellular molecules produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Mater Lett. 2014;115:42–4. Scholar
  7. Chauhan A, et al. Fungus-mediated biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles: potential in detection of liver cancer. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:2305–19.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Chauhan R, Reddy A, Abraham J. Biosynthesis and antimicrobial potential of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Candida diversa strain JA1. Der Pharma Chemica. 2014;6(3):39–47.Google Scholar
  9. Chauhan R, Reddy A, Abraham J. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property. Appl Nanosci. 2015;5(1):63–71. Scholar
  10. Cuevas R, et al. Extracellular biosynthesis of copper and copper oxide nanoparticles by Stereum hirsutum, a native white-rot fungus from Chilean forests. J Nanomater. 2015;2015:1–7.Google Scholar
  11. Elahian F, Reiisi S, Shahidi A, Mirzaei SA. High-throughput bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and production of silver and selenium nanoparticles using genetically engineered Pichia pastoris. Nanomedicine. 2017;13(3):853–61. Scholar
  12. Elgorban AM, et al. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus versicolor and evaluation of their activity on plant pathogenic fungi. Mycosphere. 2016;7(6):844–52.Google Scholar
  13. El-Sonbaty SM. Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of antitumor activity. Cancer Nanotechnol. 2013;4(4–5):73–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Fatima F, et al. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of extracellularly synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles by a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus Bipolaris tetramera. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15(1):1–10.Google Scholar
  15. Gajbhiye M, et al. Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their activity against pathogenic fungi in combination with fluconazole. Nanomedicine. 2009;5(4):382–6. Scholar
  16. Ingle A, Rai M, Gade A, Bawaskar M. Fusarium solani: a novel biological agent for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res. 2009;11(8):2079–85.Google Scholar
  17. Jaidev LR, Narasimha G. Fungal mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, characterization and antimicrobial activity. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2010;81(2):430–3. Scholar
  18. Joshi CG, et al. Biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles by marine endophytic fungus-Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from seaweed and evaluation of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Process Biochem. 2017;63(March):137–44. Scholar
  19. Kathiresan K, Manivannan S, Nabeel MA, Dhivya B. Studies on silver nanoparticles synthesized by a marine fungus, Penicillium fellutanum isolated from coastal mangrove sediment. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2009;71(1):133–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Krishnan S, Narayan S, Chadha A. Whole resting cells vs. cell free extracts of Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. AMB Express. 2016;6(1):92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Sandana Mala JG, Rose C. Facile production of ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918. J Biotechnol. 2014;170(1):73–8. Scholar
  22. Patel BH, Channiwala MZ, Chaudhari SB, Mandot AA. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles; its characterization and efficacy against human pathogenic bacterium. J Environ Chem Eng. 2016;4(2):2163–9. Scholar
  23. Qu Y, et al. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Aspergillum sp. WL-Au for degradation of aromatic pollutants. Physica E. 2017;88(January):133–41. Scholar
  24. Quester K, Avalos-Borja M, Castro-Longoria E. Controllable biosynthesis of small silver nanoparticles using fungal extract. J Biomater Nanobiotechnol. 2016;7(2):118–25.Google Scholar
  25. Rajakumar G, et al. Fungus-mediated biosynthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles and their activity against pathogenic bacteria. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012;91:23–9. Scholar
  26. Sanghi R, Verma P. A facile green extracellular biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles by immobilized fungus. Chem Eng J. 2009a;155(3):886–91.Google Scholar
  27. Sanghi R, Verma P. Biomimetic synthesis and characterisation of protein capped silver nanoparticles. Bioresour Technol. 2009b;100(1):501–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Sastry M, Ahmad A, Islam Khan M, Kumar R. Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycete. Curr Sci. 2003;85(2):162–70.Google Scholar
  29. Sawle BD, et al. Biosynthesis and stabilization of Au and Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles by fungus, Fusarium semitectum. Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2008;9(3):035012.Google Scholar
  30. Shankar SS, Ahmad A, Pasricha R, Sastry M. Bioreduction of chloroaurate ions by geranium leaves and its endophytic fungus yields gold nanoparticles of different shapes. J Mater Chem. 2003;13(7):1822.Google Scholar
  31. Shantkriti S, Rani P. Original research article biological synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Pseudomonas fluorescens. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3(9):374–83.Google Scholar
  32. Soni N, Prakash S. Efficacy of fungus mediated silver and gold nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti larvae. Parasitol Res. 2012;110(1):175–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tripathi RM, et al. Ultra-sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in water sample using gold nanoparticles synthesized by Trichoderma harzianum and their mechanistic approach. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2014;204:637–46. Scholar
  34. Velhal SG, Kulkarni SD, Latpate RV. Fungal mediated silver nanoparticle synthesis using robust experimental design and its application in cotton fabric. Int Nano Lett. 2016;6(4):257–64. Scholar
  35. Vigneshwaran N, et al. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Mater Lett. 2007;61(6):1413–8.Google Scholar
  36. Vigneshwaran N, et al. Biomimetics of silver nanoparticles by white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006;53(1):55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Rajeshkumar
    • 1
  • D. Sivapriya
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanobiomedicine Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental CollegeSaveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations