Natural Disasters and Coastal Agro-ecosystems

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


The coastal regions are prone to natural disasters, but the impact varies with the geographical location and adaptive capacity of the individual countries to cope with the post-disaster situations. Historical records show that cyclonic storm and flooding are the major disasters experienced, and these inflict heavy loss to agriculture and allied sectors. One of the main reasons for poor productivity and services of agro-ecosystem is due to uncertain weather and its associated natural disasters. On an average, the agriculture sector—including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry—absorbs approximately 22% of the economic impact caused by medium- and large-scale natural hazards and disasters. The high impact of natural hazards and disasters on agriculture calls for enhanced mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and resilience building within the agricultural sectors. Adaptation options such as protective and production measures besides proper policy supports are discussed in this chapter.


Cyclones Flooding Tropical coast Agro-ecosystem Disaster management 


  1. Ambast SK, Ravisankar N, Velmurugan A (2011) Land shaping for crop diversification and enhancing agricultural productivity in degraded lands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. J Soil Salinity Water Qual 3(2):83–87Google Scholar
  2. Anaman KA (2003) Assessing the economic and social impacts of extreme events in agriculture and use of meteorological information to reduce adverse impacts. In: Agrometeorology related to Extreme Events. WMO No. 943, World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson M (1990) Analyzing the costs and benefits of natural disaster responses in the context of development, Environment working paper 29. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1990) Disaster, planning and development: managing natural hazards to reduce loss. Department of Regional Development and Environment Executive Secretariat for Economic and Social Affairs Organization of American States, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Benfield A (2017) Weather, climate & catastrophe insight. Annual Report 2017. reports 2017. Accessed 22 Oct 2018
  6. Charveriat C (2000) Natural disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview of risk, Research Department working paper no. 434. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Chattopadhyay N, Chandras S (2018) Agro-meteorological advisory services for informed decision making in India. In: Chandrakasan Sivaperuman C, Velmurugan A, Singh AK, Jaisankar I (eds) Biodiversity and climate change adaptation in tropical islands. Academic, USA, pp 763–783Google Scholar
  8. Church JA, White N, Hunter J (2006) Sea level rise at tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean islands. Glob Planet Chang 53:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CIDI (2002) International disaster situation reports. Center for International Disaster Information. Accessed on 18 Aug 2018
  10. Das HP (2003) Incidence, prediction, monitoring and mitigation measures of tropical cyclones and storm surges. In: Agrometeorology related to extreme events. WMO No. 943, World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  11. Emanuel K (2005) Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436:686–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. FAO (2015a) The impact of natural hazards and disasters on agriculture and food security and nutrition a call for action to build resilient livelihoods. Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO (2015b) The impact of disasters on agriculture and food security. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Scholar
  14. FAO and World Bank (2001) Farming systems and poverty- improving farmers’ livelihoods in a changing world. FAO and World Bank, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. FAOSTAT (2014) Country statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed 18 July 2018
  16. Fish MR, Cote IM, Gill JA, Jones AP, Renshoff S, Walkinson A (2005) Predicting the impact of sea level rise on Caribbean sea turtle nesting habitat. Conserv Biol 19:482–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gilman E, Van Lavieren H, Ellison J, Jungblut V, Wilson L et al (2006) Pacific Island mangroves in a changing climate and rising sea, UNEP regional sea reports and studies 179. United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Sea Programme, Nairobi, p 58Google Scholar
  18. Griffiths GM, Salinger MJ, Leleu I (2003) Trends in extreme daily rainfall across the South Pacific and relationship to the South Pacific Convergence Zone. J Climatol 23:847–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. HLPE (2012) Food security and climate change. A report by the high level panel of experts on food security and nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  20. Hughes T, Baird A, Bellwood D, Card M, Connolly S et al (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301:929–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jarvis A, Lau C, Cook S, Wollenberg E, Hansen J, Bonilla O, Challinor A (2011) An integrated adaptation and mitigation framework for developing agricultural research: synergies and trade-offs. Exp Agric 47(02):185–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson G (2003) Assessing the impact of extreme weather and climate events on agriculture with particular reference to flooding and rainfall. In: Agrometeorology related to extreme events. WMO No. 943, World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan TMA, Quadir DA, Murty TS, Kabir A, Aktar F, Sarker MA (2002) Relative sea level changes in Maldives and vulnerability of land due to abnormal coastal inundation. Mar Geod 25:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar A, Brahmanand PS, Nayak AK (2014) Management of cyclone disaster in agriculture sector in coastal areas. ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, p 108Google Scholar
  25. Macintosh DJ, Ashton EC (2002) A review of mangrove biodiversity and conservation. Centre for Tropical Ecosystem Research. University of Aarhus, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  26. MEA (2006) Millennium ecosystem assessment, marine and coastal ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, p 40Google Scholar
  27. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins W, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory J, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy J, Noda A, Raper S, Watterson LG, Weaver A, Zhao ZC (2007) Global climate projections. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 747–846Google Scholar
  28. Mimura N, Nurse L, McLean RF, Agard J, Briguglio L, Lefale P, Payet R, Sem G (2007) Small islands – climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 687–716Google Scholar
  29. Mitchell W, Chittleborough J, Ronai B, Lennon GW (2001) Sea level rise in Australia and the Pacific. Proceedings science component: linking science and policy, Pacific Islands Conference on Climate Change, Climate Variability and Sea Level Rise, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. National Tidal Facility, The Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, pp 47–58Google Scholar
  30. Nott JF (2003) Intensity of prehistoric tropical cyclones. J Geophys Res 108(D7):4212. Scholar
  31. Parry M, Cynthia R, Ana I, Gunther F, Mathew L (1999) Climate change and world food security: a new assessment. Glob Environ Chang 9:551–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Petak WJ, Atkisson AA (1982) Natural hazard risk assessment and public policy: anticipating the unexpected. Springer-Verlag, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roy BC, Mruthyunjaya, Selvarajan S (2002) Vulnerability of climate induced natural disasters with special emphasis on coping strategies of the rural poor in Coastal Orissa, India. Paper presented at the UNFCC COP 8 Conference organized by the Government of India, UNEP and FICCI, 23 October to 1 November 2002, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  34. Roy Chowdhury S, Rautary SK, Panda RK, Das M, Srivastava RC, Ambast SK (2016) Technological options for agricultural water management in Eastern regions of India. ICAR-IIWM, Bhubaneswar, p 39Google Scholar
  35. Ruosteenoja K, Carter TR, Jylha K, Tuomenvirta H (2003) Future climate in world regions: an intercomparison of model-based projections for the new IPCC emissions scenarios, The Finnish Environment 644. Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki. 83 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Sivakumar MVK (2006) Climate prediction and agriculture: current status and future challenges. Clim Res 33(1):3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tanaka N, Nandasena N, Jinadasa AK, Sasaki KBSN, Tanimoto Y, Mowjood MIM (2009) Developing effective vegetation bioshield for tsunami protection. J Civil Environ Eng Syst 26:163–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thornton PK, Herrero M (2014) Climate change adaptation in mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries. Glob Food Sec 3(2):99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trenberth KE, Jones PD, Ambenje PG, Bojariu R, Easterling DR, Klein Tank AMG, Parker DE, Renwick JA, Rahimzadeh F, Rusticucci MM, Soden BJ, Zhai PM (2007) Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 235–336Google Scholar
  40. UN (2015) Agriculture and disaster risk. United Nations. UN/ATTFONWO.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  41. Uyarra MC, Cote IM, Gill JA, Tinch RRT, Viner D, Watkinson AR (2005) Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism-dependent states. Environ Conserv 32:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Velmurugan A, Swarnam TP, Ambast SK, Ravisankar N, Subramani T (2014) Land degradation and its spatio-temporal changes induced by natural events in Andaman Islands. J Andaman Sci Assoc 19(1):65–74Google Scholar
  43. Walsh K (2004) Tropical cyclones and climate change: unresolved issues. Clim Res 27:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Woodworth PL, Le Provost C, Richards LJ, Mitchum GT, Merrifield M (2002) A review of sea level research from tide gauges during the World Ocean Current Experiment. Oceanogr Mar Biol 40:1–35Google Scholar
  45. World Disaster Report (2003) Focus on ethics in aid, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Accessed on 16 Sept 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

Personalised recommendations