Bioremediation: Key to Restore the Productivity of Coastal Areas

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


Human activities particularly in the coastal areas resulted in pollution of different kinds. This seriously affected the entire coastal ecosystem. Most important pollutants are sediments, nutrients, heavy metals, and hydrocarbons. Removal of these pollutants and remediation of the contaminated/polluted soil and water assume greater significance to protect the environment and improve the productivity of the land. In this context, microbial assemblages, bioproducts, and higher plants are gaining increasing prominence for their potential in the remediation of contaminated coastal and marine ecosystems. The details of different methods used for bioremediation are discussed with case examples.


Coastal pollution Oil spills Heavy metals Phytoremediation Biomolecules 


  1. Abou-Shanab RAI, Angle JS, Chaney RL (2006) Bacterial inoculants affecting nickel uptake by Alyssum murale from low, moderate and high Ni soils. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2882–2889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams GO, Tawari-Fufeyin P, Igelenyah E (2014) Bioremediation of spent oil contaminated soils using poultry litter. Res J Eng Appl Sci 3(2):124–130Google Scholar
  3. Adams GO, Tawari Fufeyin P, Okoro SE, Igelenyah E (2015) Bioremediation, biostimulation and Bioaugmention: a review. Int J Environ Bioremediation Biodegrad 3(1):28–39Google Scholar
  4. Agarry S, Latinwo GK (2015) Biodegradation of diesel oil in soil and its enhancement by application of bioventing and amendment with brewery waste effluents as biostimulation – bioaugmentation agents. J Ecol Eng 16:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander M (1994) Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  6. Alisi C, Musella R, Tasso F, Ubaldi C, Manzo S, Cremisini C, Sprocati AR (2009) Bioremediation of diesel oil in a co-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation with a microbial formula tailored with native strains selected for heavy metals resistance. Sci Total Environ 407:3024–3032. Scholar
  7. Atagana HI (2008) Compost bioremediation of hydrocarboncontaminated soil inoculated with organic manure. Afr J Biotechnol 7(10):1516–1525Google Scholar
  8. Cadee GC, Boon JP, Fischer CV, Mensink BP, Tjabbes CC (1995) Why the whelk Buccinum undatum has become extinct in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 34:337–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Catania V, Santisi S, Signa G, Vizzini S, Mazzola A, Cappello S, Yakimov MM, Quatrini P (2015) Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area. Mar Pollut Bull 99:138–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheevaporn V, Menasveta P (2003) Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand. Mar Pollut Bull 47(1–6):43–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen L, Luo S, Li X, Wan Y, Chen J, Liu C (2014) Interaction of Cd hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and functional endophyte Pseudomonas sp. Lk9 on soil heavy metals uptake. Soil Biol Biochemist 68:300–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chikere CB (2012) Culture-independent analysis of bacterial community composition during bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil. Br Microbiol Res J 2(3):187–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chou LM (2009) The east Asian seas state of the marine environment report. UNEP EAS/RCU, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  14. Creel L (2003) Ripple effects: population and coastal regions, Making the Link, Population reference Bureau. Accessed on 16 July 2018
  15. Dadrasnia A, Agamuthu P (2013) Potential biowastes to remediate diesel contaminated soils. Global NEST J 15(4):474–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies AG (1978) Pollution studies with marine plankton; Part II. Heavy metals. Adv Mar Biol 15:381–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dell’ Anno F, Sansone C, Ianora A, Dell Anno A (2018) Biosurfactant-induced remediation of contaminated marine sediments: current knowledge and future perspectives. Mar Environ Res 137:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Díaz-Ramírez I, Escalante-Espinosa E, Schroeder RA, FócilMonterrubio R, Hugo Ramírez-Saad (2013) Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential of native and exogenous microbial inocula in Mexican tropical soils. Biodegradation of hazardous and special products.
  19. Duran R, Cravo-Laureau C (2016) Role of environmental factors and microorganisms in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev 40:814–830PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eyre LA (1990) Forestry and watershed management, mineral development planning and production national strategy consultation workshop, 25–27 April 1990, Kingston, JamaicaGoogle Scholar
  21. Frazer L (2000) Lipid lather removes metals. Environ Health Perspect 108:320–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gallego JR, Fernandez JR, Diez-Sanz F, Ordonez S, Sastre H, Gonzalez-Rojas E, Pelaez AI, Sanchez J (2007) Bioremediation for shoreline cleanup: in situ vs. on-site treatments. Environ Eng Sci 24:493–504. Scholar
  23. Gentry TJ, Rensing C, Pepper IL (2004) New approaches for bioaugmentation as a remediation technology. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 34:447–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Glick BR (2010) Using soil bacteria to facilitate phytoremediation. Biotechnol Adv 28:367–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldstein RM, Mallory LM, Alexander M (1985) Reasons for possible failure of inoculation to enhance biodegradation. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:977–983PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Gomez ED (1990) State of the marine environment in the east Asian seas region. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No 126Google Scholar
  27. Grillo V, Parsons ECM, Shrimpton JH (2001) A review of sewage pollution and cetaceans: a Scottish perspective. Paper presented to the Scientific Committee at the 53rd Meeting of the International Whaling Commission, 3–16 July 2001, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Hamzah A, Chia-Wei P, Pek-Hoon Y, Nurul H (2014) Oil palm empty fruit bunch and sugarcane bagasse enhance the bioremediation of soil artificially polluted by crude oil. Soil Sediment Contam Int J 23(7):751–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. He LY, Chen ZJ, Ren GD, Zhang YF, Qian M, Sheng XF (2009) Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria. Exotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1343–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Islam S, Tanaka M (2004) Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 48:624–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaffré T, Pillon Y, Thomine S, Merlot S (2013) The metal hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia can broaden our understanding of nickel accumulation in plants. Front Plant Sci 4:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jiang CY, Sheng XF, Qian M, Wang QY (2008) Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal resistant Burkholderia sp. from heavy metal-contaminated paddy field soil and its potential in promoting plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in metal polluted soil. Chemosphere 72:157–164PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Jing YX, Yan JL, He HD, Yang DJ, Xiao L, Zhong T, Yuan M, Cai XD, Li SB (2014) Characterization of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of polygonum pubescens and their potential in promoting growth and Cd Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus. Int J Phytorem 16:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Juwarkar AA, Dubey KV, Nair A, Singh SK (2008) Bioremediation of multi-metal contaminated soil using biosurfactant a novel approach. Indian J Microbiol 48:142–146PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kang SW, Kim YB, Shin JD, Kim EK (2010) Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil by microbial biosurfactant. Sophorolipid App Biochem Biotechnol 160:780–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karlapudi AP, Venkateswarulu TC, Tammineedi J, Kanumuri L, Ravuru BK, Dirisala VR, Kodali VP (2018) Role of biosurfactants in bioremediation of oil pollution-a review. Petroleum 4:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim PD, Oh K, Kim SY, Kim JH (1997) Relationship between emulsifying activity and carbohydrate backbone structure of emulsan from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1. Biotechnol Lett 19:457–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ko JY, Day JW (2004) A review of ecological impacts of oil and gas development on coastal ecosystems in the Mississippi delta. Ocean Coast Manag 47:597–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuffner M, Puschenreiter M, Wieshammer G, Gorfer M, Sessitsch A (2008) Rhizosphere bacteria affect growth and metal uptake of heavy metal accumulating willows. Plant Soil 304:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kumar K, Singh N, Behlh HM, Srivastava S (2008) Influence of plant growth promoting bacteria and its mutant on heavy metal toxicity in Brassica juncea grown in fly ash amended soil. Chemosphere 72:678–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumar A, Bisht BS, Joshi VD, Dhewa T (2011) Review on bioremediation of polluted environment: a management tool. Int J Environ Sci 1:1079–1093. Scholar
  42. Leahy JG, Colwell RR (1990) Microbial-degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment. Microbiol Rev 54:305–315PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee JH (2013) An overview of phytoremediation as a potentially promising technology for environmental pollution control. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 18:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee TH, Byun IG, Kim YO, Hwang IS, Park TJ (2006) Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate. Water Sci Technol 53:263–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lin Y, Cai LX (2008) PAH-degrading microbial consortium and its pyrenedegrading plasmids from mangrove sediment samples in Huian. Chin Mar Poll Bull 57:703–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lu J (2003) Marine oil spill detection, statistics and mapping with ERS SAR imagery in South-East Asia. Int J Remote Sens 24:3013–3032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Madhaiyan M, Poonguzhali S, Sa T (2007) Metal tolerating methylotrophic bacteria reduces nickel and cadmium toxicity and promotes plant growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Chemosphere 69:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Margesin R, Schinner F (2001) Bioremediation (natural attenuation and biostimulation) of diesel-oil-contaminated soil in an alpine glacier skiing area. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3127–3133PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mench M, Schwitzguebel JP, Schroeder P, Bert V, Gawronski S, Gupta S (2009) Assessment of successful experiments and limitations of phytotechnologies: contaminant uptake detoxification and sequestration, and consequences for food safety. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:876–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mulligan CN, Yong RN, Gibbs BF (2001) An evaluation of technologies for the heavy metal remediation of dredged sediments. J Hazard Mater 85:145–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Navon-Venezia S, Zosim Z, Gottlieb A, Legman R, Carmeli S, Ron EZ, Rosenberg R (1995) Alasan, a new bioemulsi er fromfi Acinetobacter radioresistens. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:3240–3244PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Nikolopoulou M, Kalogerakis N (2009) Biostimulation strategies for fresh and chronically polluted marine environments with petroleum hydrocarbons. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:802–807. Scholar
  53. Nikolopoulou M, Pasadakis N, Norf H, Kalogerakisa N (2013) Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids. Mar Pollut Bull 77:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Odokuma LO, Dickson AA (2003a) Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil. Glob J Environ Sci 2(1):29–40Google Scholar
  55. Odokuma LO, Dickson AA (2003b) Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical mangrove environment. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 7:23–29Google Scholar
  56. Orji FA, Abiye AI, Dike EN (2012) Laboratory scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon – polluted mangrove swamps in the Niger Delta using cow dung. Malays J Microbiol 8(4):219–228Google Scholar
  57. Pandey VC (2012) Phytoremediation of heavy metals from fly ash pond by Azolla caroliniana. Ecotox Environ Safe 82:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Prince RC (1997) Bioremediation of marine oil spills. Trends Biotechnol 15:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Radmann EM, de Morais EG, de Oliveira CF, Zanfonato K, Vieira Costa JA (2015) Microalgae cultivation for biosurfactant production. Afr J Microbiol Res 9:2283–2289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Raj KK, Sardar RU, Bhargavi E, Devi I, Bhunia B, Tiwari ON (2018) Advances in exopolysaccharides based bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water. A critical review. Carbohydrate Polymers 199:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rajkumar M, Freitas H (2008) Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals. Chemosphere 71:834–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rajkumar M, Sandhya S, Prasad MNV, Freitas H (2012) Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation. Biotechnol Adv 30:1562–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rawlins BG, Ferguson AJ, Chilton PJ, Arthurtons RS, Rees JG, Baldock JW (1998) Review of agricultural pollution in the Caribbean with particular emphasis on small island developing states. Mar Pollut Bull 36(9):658–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ritter WF, Scarborough RW (1995) A review of bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. J Environ Sci Health A: Environ Sci Eng Toxicol 30(2):333–357. Scholar
  65. Rosenberg E, Legmann R, Kushmaro A, Taube R, Adler E, Ron EZ (1992) Petroleum bioremediation—a multiphase problem. Biodegradation 3:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roy A, Dutta A, Pal S, Gupta A, Sarkar J, Chatterjee A, Saha A, Sarkar P, Sar P, Kazy SK (2018) Biostimulation and bioaugmentation of native microbial community accelerated bioremediation of oil refinery sludge. Bioresour Technol 253:22–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Salamanca EJP, Madera-Parra CA, Avila-Williams CA, Rengifo-Gallego AL, Ríos DA (2015) Phytoremediation using terrestrial plants. In: Ansari A, Gill S, Gill R, Lanza G, Newman L (eds) Phytoremediation. Springer, Cham. Scholar
  68. Santos HF, Carmo FL, Paes JES, Rosado AS, Peixoto RS (2011) Bioremediation of mangroves impacted by petroleum. Water Air Soil Pollut 216:329–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sarkar D, Ferguson M, Datta R, Birnbaum S (2005) Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils: comparison of biosolids addition, carbon supplementation, and monitored natural attenuation. Environ Pollut 136:187–195. Scholar
  70. Satpute SK, Banat IM, Dhakephalkar PK, Banpurkar AG, Chopade BA (2010) Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms. Biotechnol Adv 28:436–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sayara T, Borràs E, Caminal G, Sarrà M, Sánchez A (2011) Bioremediation of PAHs-contaminated soil through composting: influence of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on contaminant biodegradation. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 65(6):859–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shekhar S, Sundaramanickam A, Balasubramania T (2015) Biosurfactant producing microbes and their potential applications: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 45:1522–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sheng XF, Xia JJ (2006) Improvement of rape (Brassica napus) plant growth and cadmium uptake by cadmium-resistant bacteria. Chemosphere 64:1036–1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singh AK, Cameotra SS (2013) Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:7367–7376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Song SS, Zhu LZ, Zhou WJ (2008) Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant. Environ Pol 156:1368–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Spalding MD, Ravilious C, Green EP (2001) World atlas of coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC and the University of California Press, BerkleyGoogle Scholar
  77. Taccari M, Milanovic V, Comitini F, Casucci C, Ciani M (2012) Effects of biostimulation and bioaugmentation on diesel removal and bacterial community. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 66(1):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thompson IP, van der Gast CJ, Ciric L, Singer AC (2005) Bioaugmentation for bioremediation: the challenge of strain selection. Environ Microbiol 7:909–915PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Todd AP, Ong X, Chou LM (2010) Impacts of pollution on marine life in south east Asia. Biodivers Conserv 19:1063–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tyagi M, da Fonseca MMR, de Carvalho CCCR (2010) Bioaugmentation and biostimulation strategies to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation processes. Biodegradation.
  81. Ullah A, Heng S, Munis MFH, Yang X, Fahad S (2015) Phytoremediation of heavy metals assisted by plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria: a review. Environ Expt Bot 117:28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Ginneken L, Meers E, Guisson R, Ruttens A, Elst K, Tack FM, Vangronsveld J, Diels L, Dejonghe W (2007) Phytoremediation for heavy metal contaminated soils combined with bioenergy production. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 15:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ventikos NP, Sotiropoulos FS (2014) Disutility analysis of oil spills: graphs and trends. Mar Pollut Bull 81:116–123. Scholar
  84. Vidali M (2001) Bioremediatin. An overview. Pure Appl Chem 73(7):1163–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wu RSS (1995) The environmental impact of marine fish culture: towards a sustainable future. Mar Pollut Bull 31:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wu T, Xie WJ, Yi L, Li XB, Yang BH, Wang J (2012) Surface activity of salt-tolerant Serratia spp. and crude oil biodegradation in saline soil. Plant Soil Environ 58(9):412–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zaidi S, Usmani S, Singh BR, Musarrat J (2006) Significance of Bacillus subtilis strain SJ-101 as a bioinoculant for concurrent plant growth promotion and nickel accumulation in Brassica juncea. Chemosphere 64:991–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

Personalised recommendations