Mangroves and Sustainable Development of the Coastal Region

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


Mangrove ecosystem represents one of the most productive natural capitals occurring in tropical regions capable of producing a wide range of goods and services for coastal communities and environment. Analysis of compiled data on mangrove area shows that more than 60% of the total mangrove area is found in just ten countries. The largest areas of mangroves are found in Asia and Africa, followed by North and Central America. Due to various reasons, loss of mangroves continues at alarming rates, but in the last two decades, the rate of net loss is showing signs of slowing down. Diversion of mangrove wetlands for aquaculture, agriculture, infrastructure, and tourism activities is among the major causes of the reported decrease in mangrove areas over time. Mangrove species involving agroforestry systems, agro-aqua farming, and providing alternate livelihood and community-based management of mangroves are indispensable component of mangrove management. Such efforts help in restoration and regeneration of mangrove, address the coastal land degradation, and provide livelihood support to the coastal population.


Bio-shield Coastal vegetation Ecosystem services Livelihood Conservation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

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