Biodiversity Conservation and Restorative Measures

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


Coastal ecosystems of the tropics include innumerable flora and fauna of both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Coastal ecosystems are increasingly threatened, degraded, and destroyed by marine- and land-based human activities. Major adverse impacts to ecosystems stem from climate change, unsustainable extraction of marine resources, physical alteration of coastal landscapes, destruction of marine and coastal habitats, and pollution of land and water which act cumulatively. Such a situation and the emerging climate change impacts are seriously hampering the livelihood of coastal communities and drive some of the endemic species to extinction. Therefore conservation of biodiversity assumes greater significance. Several attempts have been made over a period of time by regional and national governments, international organizations, and nature conservationist against species extinction which was the driving force for the emergence of global conservation regime. This chapter provides a broad overview of the current state of biodiversity conservation and management in the world with an emphasis on coastal areas of tropical countries.


Biodiversity Mangroves Coral reef Conservation Ecosystem restoration 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

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